However, Donald Shoup, a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, says that some cities have shown efforts to reduce car use through parking enforcement.
One example is in Washington, D.C., where council member Tommy Wells introduced a performance parking pilot program almost three years ago that set higher meter rates around the city's baseball stadium.
"On every block there should be one vacant place," said Shoup. "If there's no vacant place, the price is too low."
Shoup is a leader in the field of limiting parking for smart growth. His 2005 book "The High Cost of Free Parking" has garnered ardent followers, or "Shoupistas," according to Lovaas.
He adds that city zoning rules have traditionally mandated a minimum amount of parking. Now, governments must instead demand a maximum number of spaces in order to cut car dependency.
"It isn't as though there wasn't any regulation; the regulation is to require a lot of parking," said Schoup. "We've been regulating badly; our regulations have done a lot of damage."
Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from Environment & Energy Publishing, LLC. www.eenews.net, 202-628-6500