The three-foot (one-meter) machine balances a Barrett WAM arm and a BarrettHand atop the base of a Segway personal transporter with two small training wheels. To find its way around dynamic environments, HERB uses two laser range finders and a camera that let it tell people apart from fixed and movable objects like walls and chairs. (A rough layout map of the space is first programmed into the bot.) By observing how people move, the robot uses learning algorithms and probability distributions to predict where they'll go next to avoid running into them. "HERB knows people have intent, that they don't just move in a straight line," says Intel research scientist Sidd Srinivasa, one of the project's co-leaders. To figure out what an object is, HERB compares its live camera image with a set of 3-D models in its database, built up from representative images that researchers showed it earlier.
Manipulating objects in cluttered settings, like carrying a pitcher through a house without spilling anything, takes two skills. First, HERB has randomized planning algorithms to determine the best way to grip or move something as quickly as possible. For example, the robot might be given 30 seconds to "think" of a way to pick up a mug; if it finds one in 15, it then has 15 more seconds to improve its plan. "They're not optimal algorithms, but practical," Srinivasa says.
HERB also uses imitation learning to figure out how to handle objects by watching how people handle them. "We're much better at demonstrating actions than explaining them," Srinivasa says. "HERB takes human examples and learns to generalize from them. It's not just repeating what you're doing." This helps the robot deal with new, unfamiliar items. During a daylong public demonstration in October, HERB moved around in a model kitchen, opened cabinets and a refrigerator, and handed objects to visitors or put them in a recycling bin—all with only a few missteps.
Srinivasa would eventually like HERB to learn some simple social rules—such as knowing to go around a group of people rather than through them—as well as how to deal with completely unfamiliar environments, even in the dark. A useful robotic assistant is about a decade away, he estimates. "Moore's law"—the rule of thumb first posited by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965 that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every two years—"is on our side." he says
In the meantime, learning robots will sometimes surprise their own creators. Srinivasa tells how an early version of HERB puzzled researchers when it was grabbing coffee cups to place them in a dishwasher rack. It used a strange hand position, with one of its "thumbs" pointing down. Then they realized this was a "far more efficient motion" used by professional bartenders, Srinivasa says: "They lift from underneath and pour in a single smooth motion, like in the movie Cocktail." He calls these surprises "one of joys of doing manipulation research."