In the first trimester of the gestation of science, one of science's midwives, Francis Bacon, penned an immodest work entitled Novum Organum ("new tool," after Aristotle's Organon) that would open the gates to the "Great Instauration" he hoped to inaugurate through the scientific method. Rejecting both the unempirical tradition of scholasticism and the Renaissance quest to recover and preserve ancient wisdom, Bacon sought a blend of sensory data and reasoned theory.
Cognitive barriers that color clear judgment presented a major impediment to Bacon's goal. He identified four: idols of the cave (individual peculiarities), idols of the marketplace (limits of language), idols of the theater (preexisting beliefs) and idols of the tribe (inherited foibles of human thought).
This article was originally published with the title The Enchanted Glass.