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See Inside Special Editions Volume 22, Issue 2s

Black Stars, Not Holes

Quantum effects may prevent true black holes from forming and give rise instead to dense entities called black stars


Black holes have been a part of popular culture for decades now. They played a central role in the plot of the 2009 Star Trek movie, for example. No wonder. These dark remnants of collapsed stars seem almost designed to bring out some of our primal fears: a black hole harbors unfathomable mystery behind the curtain that is its “event horizon,” admits of no escape for anyone or anything that falls within, and irretrievably destroys all it ingests.

To theoretical physicists, black holes are a class of solutions of the Einstein field equations, which are at the heart of Einstein's general theory of relativity. The theory describes how all matter and energy distort spacetime as if it were made of elastic and how the resulting curvature of spacetime controls the motion of the matter and energy, producing the force we know as gravity. These equations unambiguously predict that there can be regions of spacetime from which no signal can reach distant observers. These regions—black holes—consist of a location where matter densities approach infinity (a “singularity”) surrounded by an empty zone of extreme gravitation from which nothing, not even light, can escape. A conceptual boundary, the event horizon, separates the zone of intense gravitation from the rest of spacetime. In the simplest case, the event horizon is a sphere—just six kilometers in diameter for a black hole of the sun's mass.

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