One of the chief astrophysicists behind the discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the universe, among the most startling revelations in the history of cosmology, delights in the confusion about the observation. In fact, he wonders if the acceleration will end up being the most important feature in the ultimate explanation. “It might be something unexpected that looks like acceleration,” says Saul Perlmutter, leader of the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP), which first announced the astonishing fact in 1998. Ever the experimentalist, the 48-year-old Perlmutter is waiting, and planning, for more observations: “Until we go for a long run of more data, this just isn’t a mature field.”
Perlmutter philosophizes about the strangeness of the cosmos from his office at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, high in the western hills of the San Francisco Bay Area. The room is the scientist’s amalgam of too many computer screens, too many piles of papers and an equation-filled whiteboard that would have done Einstein proud. The spectacular view of the Golden Gate Bridge in the distance cannot help but promote lofty thinking.
It has been a decade since the science community learned of the shocking discovery made by Perlmutter’s group and, independently, by the High-Z Supernova Search Team led by Brian Schmidt of the Australian National University (with analyses pioneered by Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute). The cosmos, the researchers found, is not just expanding; for unknown reasons, it is speeding up in its expansion.
The discovery took years of innovation and problem solving. The key was supernovae—specifically, those called type Ia. Such events are surprisingly invariable—the explosions have an intrinsic brightness that predictably fades over time, enabling astronomers to use them as “standard candles” and thus determine their distances from Earth. Perlmutter worked with Carl Pennypacker of the University of California, Berkeley, in the 1980s to robotically search for supernovae at relatively nearby distances. The field was then so young that their main competition came from Robert Evans, an amateur astronomer in Australia who identified supernovae with a backyard telescope.
In the beginning, the difficulty for Perlmutter’s group lay in obtaining telescope time, always precious in the astronomical community. How would the researchers convince allocators to give them the chance to look for something—a supernova explosion—that had not yet taken place? So they worked out methods to predict and automatically detect supernovae in a given patch of the sky. But their goal of determining the universe’s dynamics—then thought to be a decelerating expansion dominated by matter—still required additional observation to plot supernovae’s brightness peaks and declines, which take place over a few weeks. Perlmutter twisted arms and begged colleagues for an hour or two on short notice, calling frantically around the world at all times of the day. Everyone knew him, he says, as half-annoying. “I was always worried about something that had to happen in the next 24 hours or sometimes the next two hours. It was a terrible way to lead an ordinary life,” he recalls.
But persistence paid off. Observations of distant type Ia supernovae found them to be dimmer than expected. After eliminating the possibility of intergalactic dust and after years of painstaking data gathering and analysis at telescopes around the world (and in orbit), Perlmutter’s team came to the conclusion that, incredibly, the universe is not only expanding, as Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929, but that its expansion rate is increasing. Some unknown force with negative pressure seems to be pushing the universe apart.
Subsequent balloon-borne observations of the cosmic microwave background made two years later showed that the universe is spatially flat—it was stretched out by an exponential expansion, called inflation, right after the big bang. The equations behind these experiments complemented those of the supernova teams taken a few years earlier, and together the results enabled scientists to calculate separately the density of dark energy in the universe and the density of matter.