Addressing an Illinois temperance society in 1842, Abraham Lincoln said something about "intoxicating liquor" that probably got a frosty reception. "It is true that... many were greatly injured by it," the future president noted. "But none seemed to think the injury arose from the use of a bad thing but from the abuse of a very good thing."
America has always had trouble deciding whether alcohol is a bad thing or a good thing. Millions who remember Prohibition, when all alcoholic beverages were illegal, now witness a constant stream of advertisements from producers of alcoholic beverages encouraging people to drink. Despite alcohol's popularity today, however, many still consider abstinence a virtue. Certainly heavy drinking and alcoholism deserve deep concern for the terrible toll they take on alcohol abusers and society in general. But worry about the dangers of abuse often leads to emotional denials that alcohol could have any medical benefits. Such denials ignore a growing body of evidence indicating that moderate alcohol intake wards off certain cardiovascular (circulatory system) conditions, most notably heart attacks and ischemic strokes (those caused by blocked blood vessels). A few studies even show protection against dementia, which can be related to cardiovascular problems.
The Alcohol Effect
A DISCUSSION OF moderate drinking requires a working definition of "moderate." Simple definitions of light, moderate or heavy are somewhat arbitrary, but a consensus in the medical literature puts the upper limit for moderate drinking at two standard-size drinks a day [see box on opposite page]. Studies show that drinking above that level can be harmful to overall health, although sex, age and other factors lower and raise the boundary for individuals.
The main medical benefit of reasonable alcohol use seems to be a lowering of the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), which results from the buildup of atherosclerosis (fatty plaque) in the arteries that bring blood to the heart.
Atherosclerosis restricts blood flow to the heart and can promote the formation of vessel-blocking clots. It can thereby cause angina (chest discomfort resulting from low oxygen levels in the heart muscles), heart attack (the death of heart tissue that occurs when a blood clot or narrowing of the arteries prevents blood from reaching the heart) and death, often without warning. The condition usually starts at a young age but takes decades to blossom into overt CHD. The most common form of heart disease in developed countries, CHD causes about 60 percent of deaths from cardiovascular ills and about 25 percent of all deaths in those nations.
Pathologists uncovered the first clues to the value of alcohol in the early 1900s, noting that the large arteries of people who died of alcoholic liver cirrhosis seemed remarkably "clean"--that is, free of atherosclerosis. One explanatory hypothesis assumed that alcohol was a nebulous solvent, essentially dissolving the buildup in the arteries; another explanation held that heavier drinkers died before their atherosclerosis had a chance to develop. Neither idea truly explained drinkers' unblocked arteries, however.
A more telling hint emerged in the late 1960s, when Gary D. Friedman of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in Oakland, Calif., came up with a novel idea: use computers to unearth unknown predictors of heart attacks. The power of computing could first identify healthy people who had risk factors similar to heart attack victims. Such factors include cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, elevated levels of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") cholesterol, low levels of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL, or "good") cholesterol, male gender, and a family history of CHD. Friedman then searched for predictors of heart attacks by comparing the patients and the newly found controls in hundreds of ways--for example, their exercise and dietary habits and their respective levels of various blood compounds. The computers spit out a surprising discovery: abstinence from alcohol was associated with a higher risk of heart attack.