Creating long-term memories means chemically altering the brain. Neuroscientists at Harvard University were recently able to observe, for the first time, new protein being synthesized at the synapses between neurons (red regions in image). The synthesis was observed in fruit flies and occurred as the flies learned to associate an odor with an electric shock. Molecular biologist Sam Kunes said his team “found a new biochemical pathway that determines if and where this protein synthesis happens.”