In the past decade, HIV infection in the industrial world has largely evolved from a virtual death sentence to more of a chronic disease, which is a testament to the efforts of researchers and patient advocates. But the 40 million HIV-positive people worldwide are a somber reminder of the work ahead. Resistant strains of the virus have appeared; citizens in developing countries lack access to lifesaving drugs; and basic questions about the progression of the virus postinfection remain. Yet 2005 brought hopeful news on all fronts.