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The 2003 Scientific American 50 List of Winners

RESEARCH

RESEARCH LEADER OF THE YEAR
Roderick MacKinnon
Professor of molecular neurobiology and biophysics, Rockefeller University; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Elucidated the structure and function of ion channels, particularly the potassium ion channel.

AEROSPACE
Larry Cornman and Robert Sharman
Project scientists, research applications program, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.
Discovered an algorithm that allows aircraft radar to better detect turbulence.

AGRICULTURE
Joanne Chory
Professor of plant molecular and cellular biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Pinpointed a gene that may allow shaded plants to grow more productively.

AUTOMOTIVE
Khalil Amine
Group leader, Battery Technology Development, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill.
Made superior lithium-based batteries for hybrid vehicles and medical devices.

CHEMICALS AND MATERIALS
Thomas Szyperski
Associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo
Adapted nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to map a protein¿s atomic structure in hours, not days.

COMMUNICATIONS
David E. Culler
Professor of computer science, University of California, Berkeley; former director of the Berkeley laboratory of Intel Research
Field-tested networks of sensors for military and environmental applications.

COMPUTING
Armando Fox
Assistant professor of computer science, Stanford University
Showed how software could protect networks from disastrous crashes in individual servers.

DEFENSE
Frank X. Hursey
President, Z-Medica, Newington, Conn.
Developed a mineral sponge that stops soldiers' blood loss.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Richard Jefferson
Chair, Center for the Application of Molecular Biology to International Agriculture, Canberra, Australia
Helps innovators in the Third World develop biotechnologies.

ENERGY
James A. Dumesic
Professor of chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Pioneered economical catalysts for turning biomass into hydrogen fuel.

ENVIRONMENT
Daniel Pauly
Fisheries scientist, University of British Columbia
Advances the case for setting up marine reserves so that fisheries can make a comeback.

IMAGING
Philip E. Batson
Researcher, department of physical sciences, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.
Demonstrated an electron microscope that can see objects smaller than an atom.

MANUFACTURING
David Grier
Professor of physics, New York University
Built arrays of optical tweezers that may eventually power micromachines.

MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY
Roel Nusse
Professor of developmental biology, Stanford University School of Medicine; investigator, Howard Hughs Medical Institute
Purified a molecule that may help restore blood cells destroyed through chemotherapy.

MEDICAL TREATMENT
Bahige M. Baroudy and Chris Hitchcock
Baroudy, director, department of antiviral therapy, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, N.J., and Hitchcock, senior director of exploratory development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Sandwich, England
Created drugs that blocked a receptor to prevent HIV from entering cells.

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS
Charles Lieber
Professor of chemistry, Harvard University
Made nanowires, switches, sensors and lasers; fabricated electronic components and devices with features only billionths of a meter across.

PRIVACY AND SECURITY
Rakesh Agrawal
Fellow, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, Calif.
Devised methods to preserve the privacy of information in large databases.

PUBLIC HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
The Malaria Parasite/Mosquito Genome Projects
Unraveled the genetic information of the parasite that causes malaria and of the mosquito that spreads it.


BUSINESS

BUSINESS LEADER OF THE YEAR
Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota City, Japan
Commercialized affordable hybrid cars.

AEROSPACE
Burt Rutan
President, Scaled Composites, Mojave, Calif.
Designed a reusable suborbital passenger spacecraft.

AGRICULTURE
Fernando de Castro Reinach
General partner, Votorantim Ventures, Sa¿ Paulo, Brazil
Started biotechnology companies that are trying to improve Brazilian crops.

AUTOMOTIVE
DaimlerChrysler
Stuttgart, Germany
Pushed fuel-cell cars toward the commercial marketplace.

CHEMICALS AND MATERIALS
Novozymes
Bagsvaerd, Denmark
Launched a program to reduce by an order of magnitude the cost of enzymes for making ethanol.

COMMUNICATIONS
Steven Jobs
CEO, Apple Computer, Cupertino, Calif.
Started an online music service that serves as a model for the rest of the record industry.

COMPUTING
Intel Corporation
Santa Clara, Calif.
Crafted possible solutions for Internet bottlenecks and constructed chip sets that make wireless networking easier.

DEFENSE
Cepheid
Sunnyvale, Calif.
Enabled some post offices to track anthrax through use of biodetectors.

ENERGY
Changing World Technologies
West Hempstead, N.Y.
Devised a method for turning solid waste into oil.

ENVIRONMENT
Zeca Corporation and Los Alamos National Laboratory
Calgary, Canada, and Los Alamos, N.M.
Commercialized a process to convert coal into hydrogen fuel.

MANUFACTURING
Fluidigm
South San Francisco, Calif.
Built microscopic channels, pumps and valves that will create the fluidic equivalent of microchips.

MEDICAL TREATMENT
Genentech
South San Francisco, Calif.
Developed the first commercial drug that stops blood vessel growth in tumors.

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS
Nanosys
Palo Alto, Calif.
Funded the development of nanotechnology.

PRIVACY AND SECURITY
Anonymizer
San Diego, Calif.
Protected the anonymity of those offering tips about corporate malfeasance.

PUBLIC HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Merck Research Laboratories
West Point, Pa.
Created a vaccine that may help eliminate cervical cancer.

ROBOTICS
iROBOT
Burlington, Mass.
Introduced the first truly mass-market household robot.


POLICY

POLICY LEADER OF THE YEAR
Gro Harlem Brundtland
Former secretary general, World Health Organization
Coordinated a rapid global response to stem the SARS outbreaks.

AEROSPACE
Harold W. Gehman, Jr.
Chair, Columbia Accident Investigation Board
Distinguished himself for a hard-nosed approach to investigating the Columbia accident.

AGRICULTURE
Paul R. Polak
President, International Development Enterprises, Lakewood, Colo.
Encouraged local markets to improve access to water for Third World farmers.

AUTOMOTIVE
Ken Livingstone
Mayor, London, England
Implemented tariffs to regulate city traffic.

CHEMICALS AND MATERIALS
Anthony J. Muscat
Associate professor of chemical and environmental engineering, University of Arizona
Introduced environmentally friendly chipmaking technologies.

COMMUNICATIONS
Edward Felten
Professor of computer science, Princeton University
Persistently criticized proposed digital TV standards.

COMPUTING
Henry Chesbrough
Visiting assistant professor, Institute of Management, Innovation and Organization, University of California, Berkeley
Advocated the abolition of the not-invented-here syndrome that afflicts many companies.

DEFENSE
Arthur K. Cebrowski
Director, Office of Force Transformation, U.S. Department of Defense
Articulated the "network-centric" approach to warfare implemented during the Iraq conflict.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Frances J. Stewart
Professor of development economics, University of Oxford
Promoted anti-poverty campaigns to help quell armed conflicts in developing nations

ENERGY
Kurt Yeager
Chief executive officer, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, Calif.
Lobbied for a major overhaul of the power industry long before the 2003 blackouts.

ENVIRONMENT
Andrew Balmford
Conservation scientist, University of Cambridge; co-founder, Cambridge Conservation Forum
Described how economic motives can justify preserving natural habitats.

MANUFACTURING
Heather White
Founder and executive director, Verit¿, Amherst, Mass.
Campaigned to extricate migrant workers from virtual slavery.

MEDICAL TREATMENT
Anthony S. Fauci
Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Convinced the Bush administration to commit $15 billion to combat AIDS in Africa and the Caribbean.

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS
Phillip J. Bond
U.S. undersecretary of commerce for technology
Promoted nanotechnology effectively within the executive branch.

PRIVACY AND SECURITY
Joe Simitian and Steve Peace
Simitian, state assemblyman, (Palo Alto), and Peace, former state senator (San Diego County), California State Legislature
Sponsored law that requires issuing warnings when possible identity theft occurs.

PUBLIC HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Seattle, Wash.
Gave hundreds of millions of dollars to meet the challenges of global health.

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