Early in the morning of January 23, 1999, a robotic telescope in New Mexico picked up a faint flash of light in the constellation Corona Borealis. Though just barely visible through binoculars, it turned out to be the most brilliant explosion ever witnessed by humanity. We could see it nine billion light-years away, more than halfway across the observable universe. If the event had instead taken place a few thousand light-years away, it would have been as bright as the midday sun, and it would have dosed Earth with enough radiation to kill off nearly every living thing.
The flash was another of the famous gamma-ray bursts, which in recent decades have been one of astronomy's most intriguing mysteries. The first sighting of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) came on July 2, 1967, from military satellites watching for nuclear tests in space. These cosmic explosions proved to be rather different from the man-made explosions that the satellites were designed to detect. For most of the next 30 years, each new burst had merely heightened the puzzlement. Whenever researchers thought they had the explanation, the evidence sent them back to square one.
The monumental discoveries of the past decade have brought astronomers closer to a definitive answer. Before 1997, most of what we knew about GRBs was based on observations from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. BATSE revealed that two or three GRBs occur somewhere in the observable universe on a typical day. They outshine everything else in the gamma-ray sky. Although each is unique, the bursts fall into one of two rough categories. Bursts that last less than two seconds are short, and those that last longer--the majority--are long. The two categories differ spectroscopically, with short bursts having relatively more high-energy gamma rays than long bursts do. The January 1999 burst emitted gamma rays for a minute and a half.
Arguably the most important result from BATSE concerned the distribution of the bursts. They occur isotropically--that is, they are spread evenly over the entire sky. This finding cast doubt on the prevailing wisdom, which held that bursts came from sources within the Milky Way; if they did, the shape of our galaxy, or Earth's off-center position within it, should have caused them to bunch up in certain areas of the sky. The uniform distribution led most astronomers to conclude that the instruments were picking up some kind of event happening throughout the universe. Unfortunately, gamma rays alone did not provide enough information to settle the question for sure. Researchers would need to detect radiation from the bursts at other wavelengths. Visible light, for example, could reveal the galaxies in which the bursts took place, allowing their distances to be measured. Attempts were made to detect these burst counterparts, but they proved fruitless.
A Burst of Progress
THE FIELD TOOK a leap forward in 1996 with the advent of the x-ray spacecraft BeppoSAX, built and operated by the Italian Space Agency with the participation of the Netherlands Space Agency. BeppoSAX was the first satellite to localize GRBs precisely and to discover their x-ray afterglows. The afterglow appears when the gamma-ray signal disappears. It persists for days to months, diminishing with time and degrading from x-rays into less potent radiation, including visible light and radio waves. Although BeppoSAX detected afterglows for only long bursts--eight more years would pass before counterparts of short bursts would be discovered--it made follow-up observations possible at last. Given the positional information from BeppoSAX, optical and radio telescopes were able to identify the galaxies in which the GRBs took place. Nearly all lie billions of light-years away, meaning that the bursts must be enormously powerful. Extreme energies, in turn, call for extreme causes, and researchers began to associate GRBs with the most extreme objects they knew of: black holes.