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This article is from the In-Depth Report Lightbulb Frenzy in the 21st Century

Does Turning Fluorescent Lights Off Use More Energy Than Leaving Them On?

Incandescent lightbulbs are lumbering toward extinction. Now, how best to use their energy-efficient replacements?
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©GARY ALVIS/ISTOCKPHOTO

So you bought a compact fluorescent lightbulb in a bid to be green. Such bulbs are vastly more energy-efficient than traditional incandescents and screw into standard sockets. Should you treat them like their older cousins?

After all, four- and eight-foot- (1.2- and 2.4-meter-) long tubular bulbs common in more institutional settings are sometimes left on permanently, perhaps due to their slow, flickering start-ups. The thinking is that the boost of energy such bulbs require to power up means that it might be best to keep them on when leaving a room, rather than subjecting them to the stress of a restart on your return.

Turns out, however, that power surge is so brief that its energy draw doesn't amount to much: the equivalent of a few seconds or so of normal operation, according to U.S. Department of Energy estimates. In other words, from a strict energy-conservation standpoint, it's almost always beneficial to shut off fluorescents when leaving the room—the start-up energy is offset by the power saved in even the briefest outages.

But what about the wear and tear on the bulb itself? Being too switch-happy reduces the operating life of the lamp, and given that newer fluorescents are still a few times more expensive than old-fashioned incandescents, it makes sense to forestall burnouts. There are also real environmental impacts of their production and disposal to consider.

A simple rule of thumb that balances both concerns is to shut off fluorescents if you’re planning to leave a room for more than five minutes, according to Francis Rubinstein, a staff scientist in the Building Technologies Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Mary Beth Gotti, manager of the GE Lighting & Electrical Institute in Cleveland, agrees. For all practical purposes, "it almost always makes sense to turn the lights off," Gotti says. "From an environmental standpoint, the best way to save energy is to turn off the things that you're not using."

Rubinstein notes that, even for fluorescents, the cost of electricity over a bulb's lifetime far outpaces the cost of the bulb itself. "Even if you switch on and off a fluorescent light frequently," he says, "the slight reduction in lamp life is a small effect relative to the energy savings you accomplish by being a good citizen." Gotti adds that the reduction in lamp life from frequent on-and-off switching can often be counterbalanced by the extension of "calendar life"—the actual passage of time between lightbulb replacements—that results from using the bulb for fewer hours.

That sort of calculation will probably become more common as compact fluorescent lightbulbs come down in price, cast more pleasant light and, most importantly, force their power-hungry competitors from store shelves. The Australian government will phase out the sale of traditional incandescents in that country by 2010, and the U.S. Congress has effectively mandated the same ban domestically by 2012. But whereas that new fluorescent bulb is sure to lower utility bills in your home, the real energy-crunch savior has been there all along: the light switch.

* Editor's Note: This is part one of a two-part series of Fact or Fiction? on fluorescent lightbulbs. The next, appearing on April 10, will address the question of the mercury inside them.

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