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The Early Evolution of Animals

Tiny fossils reveal that complex animal life is older than we thought--by at least as much as 50 million years

By David J. Bottjer

Test-Tube Teeth

More complicated than they look, teeth are actually tiny organs.If tissue engineers can manufacture living replacement teeth, they would blaze a trail for engineering larger organs while leading dentistry into the age of regenerative medicine

By Paul T. Sharpe and Conan S. Young


Antibodies, often described as magic bullets, are actually more like tanks: big, complicated and expensive. Tinier "nanobodies," derived from camels and llamas, may be able to infiltrate a wider range of diseases at lower cost. That is the hope, at least, of one small start-up in Belgium

By W. Wayt Gibbs


Magnetic logic may usher in an era in which computing devices can change instantly from one type of hardware to another

By Reinhold Koch

Mindful of Symbols

On the way to learning that one thing can represent another, young children often conflate the real item and its symbol. These errors show how difficult it is to start thinking symbolically

By Judy S. DeLoache

Is the Universe Out of Tune?

Like the discord of key instruments in a skillful orchestra quietly playing the wrong piece, mysterious discrepancies have arisen between theory and observations of the "music" of the cosmic microwave background. Either the measurements are wrong or the universe is stranger than we thought

By Glenn D. Starkman and Dominik J. Schwarz

Beating a Sudden Killer

When a young woman nearly died from a ruptured aneurysm, the author and the woman's husband began searching for ways to save other aneurysm patients from catastrophe

By John A. Elefteriades


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