It has long been settled that insulation does not depend upon the mass of the non-conducting material as much as upon extent of surface, and the protection of the surface from deposition of moisture, or any substance calculated to decrease ' its insulating power. That insulator will therefore prove the most efficient that takes most fully into account these acknowledged facts. The invention herein described and illustrated, has for its object the attainment of such an insulator, by simple means, and to produce not only as near as may be a perfect insulator, but a choap and durable one. There are two classes of insulators in common use. .'fTh'-firSt is supported on a standard or peg. Fig. 1, and the second, Fig. 2, often called the hook insulator supports the wire by means of a hook, the shanks of which is screwed or otherwise fastened into the insulator proper which in its turn is fastened into a wooden block or iron casing or some substitute therefor. In the description of this insulator, we shall letter corresponding arts in both forms of the insulator similarly and describe them together. A is the insulator proper, made of glass, hard rubber or other suitable material; a section of the hook insulator and a sectional elevation of the other variety being presented. To these insulators the wire is attached in the ordinary manner. B is, in Fig. 1, the peg or standard supporting the insulator proper. A, and in Fig. 2, the shank of the hook screwed into the insulator proper, A; these supports being preferably made of malleable iron. Each of these supports i has cast upon it or otherwise attached a cup, C. The insulator, A, is screwed down on the standard, B, Fig. 1, or the shank, B, Fig. 2, so that it either touches, or nearly touches the bottom of the cup, C. The top of the cup, C, is shielded by the peculiar form of the insulator proper. A, Fig. 1, or by a recess cut in the under side of the block which sustains it Fig 2. The cup, C, extends out towards, but does not touch with its upper edge, either the insulator proper, A in Fig. 1, or the exterior of the recess cut in the supporting block, Fig. 2. Into the cup, C, is poured either melted paraffine, D, or any other insulating substance, paraffine being preferred as being both well suited to th purpose and cheap. Thus a large extent of insulating surface is obtained between the line and the metallic supports, while at the same time the surface of the paraffine contained in the eups is protected from deleterious atmospheric influences. This insulator has claimed for it the following advantages over those hitherto employing paraffine, as well as those not employing this insulating material: First a greater surface of paraffine can be presented, thereby securing more perfect insulation. Second, the dispensing with outside iron caps which invite lightning discharges. Third, the placing of the paraffine in a cup right side up instead of bottom side up, and thus preventing all danger of the running out of the paraffine when melted by the heat of the sun, in hot weather. Fourth,, greater protection from atmospheric influences. Fifth, general applicability to all common insulators* Sixth, this insulator does not sensibly increase the cost over the ordinary insulator. Should experience prove that these advantages are obtained as claimed, at no expense of other valuable principles such as strength, durability, etc., this improvement will be one of great scientific interest and practical value. This invention was patented June 29, 1869, by W. E. Si-monds, whom address for further information, at 345 Main st. Hartford, Conn. Industrial Production of Hydrogen Gas. MM. Tessie du Motay and Marechal have lately indicated a new and interesting process for the industrial production of hydrogen gas. Alkaline and alkalino-earthy hydrates, such as hydrate of potash, of sodaj of strontia, of barytes, of lime, etc., mixed with charcoal, coke, anthracite, coal, peat, etc., and, heated with these fuels to a red heat, are decomposed into carbonic acid and hydrogen gas without any further loss of heat than what is required to produce the carbonic acid and hydrogen. During this operation the hydrogen is developed without the production of steam, and may be manufactured without the use of boilers, and within simple retorts/which, not being acted on by the vapor of water, are not liable to corrosion or accidents. The hydrogen gas may thus be made cheaply and quite as practically as is now done by the distil-! lation of coal or other hydrocarbons. Compensating Pendulum Mod. Mr. S. T. Mason, of Sumpter, S. C, sends us the accompanying design for a compensating pendulum rod, which is a form we have not seen, and seems at once simple and effective. Two bars, A, of steel are attached to a cross bar, B, and pivoted at C, to two curved arms, B. The arms, D, are pivoted in their inner ends to a central rod of brass, E, having its upper end fixed to the cross bar, B. The exterior ends of the bars, D, are pivoted to supports arising from the bob of the pendulum. As brass expands more by heat and contracts more by cold than steel, it follows that an adjustment can be made so that when the three rods expand, the supports of the bob will be relatively raised as much as the steel rods are lengthened, and mce versa, so that the center of oscillation may be maintained in a constant position [for all teneratures. This form of pendulum rod may have been employed before, but if so we have not met with it. Preservation of Wine by Heating. A long memoir, first published in the Annales de Ghimie et de Physique, for September, 1868, and which is condensed in the last number of Dingler's Polytechnic Journal, furnishes the report of a committee named by the French government to examine into the merits of a method proposed by Mr. Pasteur, for the preservation of wines, especially for such qualities as are destined for distant markets or for embarkation on board of vessels of war. The elaborate report in question is very favorable to the efficiency*of the process. We present a short summary of the final results. 1. Wine may be kept without altering in quality for an indefinite period of time, in all climates, after having been first submitted to the action of artificial heat. 2. The temperature to which it must be raised is from 13P to 140 Fah. 3. If the wine does not contain naturally more than 10 or 12 per cent of alcohol, it is best to add 1 per cent more before the shipping of it. 4. The wine is to be heated by steam, and artificially cooled. Production of tlie White Pine Mines. Official figures of the production of the White Pine mines for three months show how largely the richness of the mines has been ovei-rated, as well as their capacity for production. Only twenty mines were worked, only 960 tuns of ore were reduced, and the aggregate yield was less.than $275,000. The average was just about $275 a tun. The rte of yield from the larger mines was from $390 a tun down to $57*50 a tun. One mine returned its yield at the rate of $6,847 a tun, but it took out only 548 pounds, and there seem to be good grounds for doubting the entire accuracy of the return. It is now said that the White Pine district is not extraordinarily rich, but the fact that its ores are simple chlorides and easy to be worked, makes them specially valuable.
This article was originally published with the title "A New Telegraphic Insulator" in Scientific American 21, 5, 68 (July 1869)