TheProduction of Anthracite Coal in 1910 THE United States Geological Survey has issued an advance chapter from “Mineral Resources of the United States” for 1910, in which Mr. Edward W. Parker gives the following interesting statistics: With the exception of the “boom” year, 1907, the production of anthracite in Pennsylvania in 1910 was the largest in the history of the industry. The quantity produced in 1910 was 75,433,246 long tons, an increase over 1909 of 3,048,997 long tons, or 4 per cent. The value increased from $149,181,587 in 1909 to $160,275,302, a gain of $11,093,713, or 7.4 per cent. The production in 1910 was within almost exactly 1,000,000 long tons of the maximum record for 1907, when the output amounted to 76,432,421 long tons. The value of the product in 1907 exceeded that of 1910 by $3,308,754. The average p r ice per ton at tht mines in 1910 was $2.12, against. $2.0& in 1909, 12.IB in 1!08, and $2.14 in 1907. Of the total production in 1910, 65,735,024 long tons, or 87.1 pel' cent, were loaded at the mines for shipucent to distant points; 1,804,082 tons, or 2.4 per cent, were sold to local trade and employees, and 7,894,140 tons, or 10.5 per eent, were consumed in the operation of the mines. In former years the colliery consumption was not considered as having any market value, consisting as it did of screenings, or culm,;. whicl unless so used was wasted. More recently through the invention of grates and furnaces adapted to the lise of small sizes of anthracite, stimulated by the higher prices of the prepared sizes, the percentage of waste has been reduced to a minimum. “Buckwheat,” “rice,” “barley,” and even culm are now important steam-raising fuels, particularly in hotels, apartment houses, and large office buildings in the larger citieS of the East, where smoke-inhibiting ordinances are in force. In fact, these small sizes are now the only grades o'f anthracite us(d to any extent for this purpose, and are the only sizes that will compete with bituminous coal for steam raising in the eastern markets. An object lesson in practical conservation is here furnished and, to the credit of the operators in the anthracite region be it said, it was put into effect a number of years before the agitation over the conservation of natural resources began. Not only are the sall sizes produced in the present mining operations sold and utilizecl, but the unsightly culm banl{s which blotted “the landscape in the anthracite region are fast disappearing as the usable coal is being reeovened from them by washeries. The prices for buckwheat at New York Harbor in 1910 ranged from $2.20 to $2.50 per long ton; rice ranged from $1.65 to $2; and barley from $1.:5 to $1.50. With 65 per cent vf the tidewater price representing the value at the mines, the prices for these sizes f. o. b. cars at mines were: Buckwheat, $1.43 to $1.63; rice, $1.07 to $1.30; and barley, 88 cents to 98 cents. The culm used at the mines is valued at 25 to 50 cents a ton. Of the total production of 7",1::,246 long tons in 1910, 4,184,629 tons were recovered from the old culm banks by wash eries, and 91,833 tons were recovered by dredges from the bed of the Susquehanna River. The total output from the mines was 71,156,784 long tons. In 1909 the mine production was 67,945,137 long tons. Preserving Poles FOREST SERVICE BULLETIN 84, entitled “Preicl'vative Treatment of POles,” contains a large amount of well-arranged information which should prove interesting, not only to many general readers, but especially to the users of telephone and telegraph poles. In th's publication are summed up all the excellent results achieved by a number of experts of the Forest Service in their effort to treat poles with certain preservatives in order to increase their durability. In 55 pages of text are given the results of the co-operative experiments aiming to simplify commercial pole-treating practice by the use of the latest approved methods. The scheme of the Bulletin may be outlined briefly as follows: General principles of wood preservatives; resuits of seasoning tests; brush method of treating poles; open tank process of treating poles; results of treatment by' species; design and operation of pole-treating plants; increased life afforded by preservative treatment; and financial saving. The last two chapters are of high practical interest and value to large pole using concerns whose experience warrants them in employing means for impregnating the portion of their poles most subject to decay-the butt. lt is brought out that the cOit of the treatment varies greatly according to the methods employed and the quantity of preserva- tives used, but the results are correspondingly very much better for the more thorough treatments. Mr. 0. T. Swan whose results of more recent experiments are included in this bulletin, devised the first really pnctical open tank method of treating the butt ends of pO'les. He greatly advanced the efficiency and compiled very important data which he uses to show that a great saving is possible and that plants for butt treatments may be constructed in a simple and inex- pensive manner. Mr. Swan b\ilt his own design for steeping the poles and this his proved so successful that an illustration of the tank now in use is given here. The poles are treated by dipping them in a tank containing the preservative fhiid, by standing them in an O'pen tank and securing an absorption of the preservative by periods of heating and cooling. Photograph of a cross section near the lower end of the poles is also given to show the penetration of the creosO'te oil. Mr. Swan is well known in the \orld of scientific and practical wood preservation, and the results he achieved are sure to meet a cordial welcome among creosoting concerns. His figures show painstak:ng thoroughness and accuracy which gives them technica and economic value. Spruce Yarn THE expression “mahogany overcoat” used til be em-A ployed as a sort of synonym or euphemism for “coffin"; but if things keep on as they have started und,” the impulse of inventive genius, we may soon hear of “locust shirts” and “bass-wood collars” and even “long-leaf pine ulsters.” The Germans have long since endeavored to make themselves independent of fOftign sources for the various raw materials which they require for their own home consumption, as well as to manufacture for export, and now we hear that there has been made of spruce wood a yarn that is quite spinnable. 'hether this is a “yarn” or not, cannot be said, but on the authority of Der Holzliiuter, which is many times removed from being a comic paper. and in fact revels in the most wooden of statistics for the foresters and lumber dealers of Germany the formidably named “Aktiengesellschaft fiir Garnfabrik:-Hon” of Berlin has for some time been having experiments made on the same lines as those which have resulted in the production of artificial. sHk and cotton; and the result seems to be gratifying, as spruce is comparatively plenty in the “Fatherland,” while as yet (there being no Luther Burbank on her rolls) cotton and silk are not numbered among the productions of central Europe. The new product is said to hav” a fine finish and much better surface than is usual with the natural fibers as yet used for spinning. The Technische Laboratorium fiir Materialpriifungen of the Technical School for Textile Industries in Reutlingen has shown that when leather feed-rolls are used, the new yarn when used as warp or chains is 12Y, tim2s as strong as jute; and when used as woof or fillings, 30 times as strong. As against jute, “sylvalin” has the very great advantage of being odorless, even when moist. Articles woven therefrom are naturally not exposed to the attacks of moths. If all these things are true, and the 'process is not too expensive, there must be a good future for the new yarn, especially if (as is said) it can be worked with all the usual other fbers. The first attempts at weaving have been with wall tapestry, which are most satisfactory in pattern and color, and have the great aCvantage of being ,;0 smooth that dust does not attach itself thereto as readily as to other stuffs used for the same purpose; also. that in brushing them down they do not get rough. So-called Japanese mats have been made of sylvaHn, and are hardly to be distinguished from those made of rushes. There is this great advantage on the side of the sylvalin yarn, that it may be woven in the loom; whereas by reason of the shortness of the individual pieces, rushes can be worked up only by hand. Th9 new material has also been made up into cord of various kinds, alone and in combination with other materials, for decorative and other purposes. One Hundred and Seventy-one Dead Horses a Day WHILE the hot period of July in New York was more severe than usual, the deaths of work horses due to the heat during those six days is a very strong argument in favor of the electric commercial wagon. The health department of New York city, which has the task of removing dead horses, reported that during the six working days of the hot period 171 horses died each day-a total of ],026. These horses represented over half a million dollars cash value, which was entirely wiped out in a single week. In addition to this the horses not affected fatally were able to work at scarcely half their normal capacity, and fully 25 per cent of the drivers' time was consumed in staving off sun-stroke by' frequent applications of water and frequent rests in the shade. It is estimated that the money represented by the horses which died would pay fer a sufficient number of electric vehicles to do all of the work done by the horses, and do it more efficiently and economically. In New York city, where it is estimated that there are in thp neighborhood of fifty thousand draft horses, not less than fOllr per cent die annually from the effect of heat in summer and slippery pavements in winter. This million-dollar annual loss is in addition to the normal deaths, and represents a tremendous increase in the cost of horse-haulage.