Things are rarely as simple as they seem, and what appears to be complex may be no more than ripples on the surface of a fathomless ocean. The mechanics of malignancy—a single cell acquiring mutation upon mutation until it spirals down the rabbit hole of cancer—was neatly described by two scientists, Douglas Hanahan and Robert A. Weinberg, in a sweeping synthesis published in 2000 called “The Hallmarks of Cancer.”