A new era in physics will open up when the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) extends the reach of subatomic particle investigations to unprecedented energy scales. But even before researchers initiate the first high-energy collisions in the LHC’s giant storage ring, located under the French-Swiss border, they are already contemplating and working toward the next great particle accelerator. And the consensus choice of the particle physics community is a proposed facility called the International Linear Collider (ILC), a machine more than 30 kilometers long that would smash electrons and positrons together at velocities very close to the speed of light. (The positron is the antimatter counterpart of the electron, identical in mass but opposite in charge.)