The line of railroad that unites the two cities of Lausanne and Friburg is one of the most picturesque in Switzerland. One portion of the line on leaving Lausanne rises rapidly on the Vaudois slope of Lake Lemltn, the waters of which wash the base of gigantic rocks of Silvoy and Valais. A sharp curved tunnel suddenly hides this magnificent panorama, perhaps the most unique in Europe, and the traveler is speedily transported into the midst of a display of vigorous nature, hiUs covered with trees, and fertile valleys. Mineral Lemonade. When equal parts by weight of strong pure sulphuric aeid and strong pure alcohol (85 to 90 per cent) are carefully mixed (the acid being poured into the alcohol and thoroughly mixed therewith), a liquid is obtained which has long been known and used by medical men under the older name of Elixir acidum Aluileri, more recently named Mixtura sulphur- ica acida. This fluid, which, if well prepared, contains essentially sulphovinic acid, is an excellent summer beverage when mixed with water in the proportion of one small tea- spoonful to a tumbler of cold water, sweetened with sugar, or, preferably, with some fruit sirup. Above the lemonades to remove sulphur, phosphorus, carbon. silica and other impurities from the iron and the oxides in the furnace, and pro ducing a greater yield of iron, and saving about one-third of the time and fuel consumed in puddling, and by means of the alloys used in connection with the fluxing agents, such as nitrates evolving oxygen and forming a flux, at the same time steel of any desired grade or strength. The rationale of this process is, that the substances being applied at the bottom of the bath of cast iron from a vessel open at the bottom must necessarily ascend from the bottom and sides of the vessel when they are melted or set free by the heat of the furnace and such substances as nitrates being used. LAUSAE AND FRIBURG RAILROAD VIADUCT. The ancient city of Friburg is one of the most wild and picturesque in Switzerland. It stands partly in a small plain, partly on bold acclivities, on a ridge of rugged rocks, half encircled by the river Sarine, and is so entirely concealed by the surrounding hills that the traveler scarcely catches the smallest glimpse, until he bursts upon a view of the city from the everhanging eminence. There are two fine suspension bridges .across the river, one of which hangs 284 feet above the bed. A short distance out of the town is the celebrated railway, Grundfy viaduct, constructed of iron. Indeed the difficulties to be overborne on that line, were very great, and in order to effect a passage over, the abrupt ravines, recourse had to be made to works of art, the dimensions of which fill the traveler with feelings of wonder : such are the viaduct of Pan- dese, constructed of masonry, and the sheet iron viaduct of Chatelard an illustration of which is given herewith, con structed by Ladet and Alphaise of Paris. KJ.B. Manufacture of Tigers in India.' A cotemporary writes as follows : “ Sportsmen and taxidermists have much to learn in India. To keep down wild beasts a somewhat liberal scale of rewards are offered for every slain tiger, leopard, and bear. Asiatic ingenuity has so defrauded the authorities for a long time that the Bengal Board of Revenue has issued a grave order describing the acts by which districts officers are deceived : ' When a tiger, leopard, or bear has been killed, the skin is split in two. The upper skin, with the hair on, is removed; a manufactured skull is fitted to it, and it is presented with a claim for reward. The real skull of the animal, with some flesh on it, and a complete under skin, but without any hair, is likewise Jl!l'esented as that of an altogether separate animal, both specimens being fresh. The fraud is often successful. In other uses an entire skull is manufactured out of broken bones j@ined with .strong twine. To the bones a filthy compound «f putrid flesh, with coloring matter for blood, is glued on, and then covered with skin, slit at the places where the mouth, nose, and ears should have been. When a sufficient supply of tiger skins and skulls is not procurable, skulls of ackals and dogs are often substituted, with tiger's teeth fastened in front with glne, the whole being covered over with pig-skin molded over a genuine tiger's skull.' “ made with vegetable acids, this acid mixture has the advantage of not increasing the perspiration, as citric and other vegetable acids do, while it is better borne by the stomach, and has a tonic. action upon th'l vascular system. It is, in deed, a very pleasant drink, often given at the cafes of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and other places, along with some syrop de groisedes or framJoises, and rather exorbitantly charged for. The proportions by bulk are—one of strong sulphuric acid and three of alcohol.—Hamm's Zeitung.
This article was originally published with the title "Chatelard Viaduct of the Lausanne and Friburg Railroad" in Scientific American 21, 14, 212 (October 1869)