THE recognition of certain properties, the association of certain ideals with the several elements, is a necessary step in classifying the elements in accordance with MendeleJeff's great generalization—or rather it may be said to be both involved in and an outcome of Mendelejeff's conception. Until recently our difficulty was to understand the relationship of the metallic and the non-metallic elements; now we are confronted with another problem — that of the existence of inert “paraffinoid” elements. It is commonly assumed that these are monatomic, but the evidence on which this assumption is based is absolutely unconvincing, and would be generally admitted to be so were we in the habit of looking before we leapt to conclusions. Assuming that the elements are compounds, the formation of inert compounds does not appear to be out of place, in view of the existence of practically inert hydrocarbons. But, on the other hand, in view of the properties of nitrogen, which is one of the most active of substances in the monatomic state, although an inert gas in the diatomic condition, it may well be that the inertness of helium and the other a member of the argon group is also simulated. Sir James Dewar's; observations have shown that helium and charcoal have no inconsiderable affinity at the toiling point of the former, which is within five • degrees of the absolute zero, the molecular heat of absorption (apart from that due to liquefaction) of helium at that temperature being apparently as high as about sixty calories. The proof he has also given that helium alone does not convey an electric discharge is also of significance since the pas- Rage of a discharge through it under ordinary conditions is an indication that it can be included with ether substances in a conducting system. Such evidence as there is therefore points to the elements under discussion being different from the others only in the degree of stability of their molecules. Of late years the difficulty of classifying the elements has been increased rather than diminished, not merely because of the discovery of the inert gases but also on account of the apparent impossibility of ordering the position of an element such as tellurium in accordance with its atomic weight. There appears to 'Be little room left for doubt that the value cannot be far removed from that of iodine; it should be considerably lower. It may be pointed out that the accepted value of selenium is closer to that of bromine than would be expected if a relationship were maintained corresponding to that between chlorine and sulphur. It would seem that Mendelejeff's original conception of the elements as a simple series in which the properties are periodic functions of the atomic weights must be abandoned in favor of some more comprehensive scheme. From the chemist's point of view, it is impossible to abandon the guiding principle underlying the arrangement in family groups, which dates back to Dumas; perhaps insufficient attention has been paid in the past to the maintenance of this principle. Taking into account this principle, it is impossible to arrange a long series of elements such as the rare earths continuously in order of atomic weight, as they would be brought into every family in the- table by such a procedure; the difficulty has been got over by Brauner, who has proposed to arrange a large number of the rare earths in a single vertical series under barium. Bilitz has made a similar proposal. The principle had been advocated by me previously in an article written • for the Encyclopedia Britannica. In the arrangement I have proposed, it is not only assumed that there may be as many as sixteen vertical series of elements of which the elements from hydrogen to oxygen are initial terms, some series being at present unrepresented, it is also suggested that groups of elements occur in perhaps four of these series, numbers 4, 8, 12, and 16, the largest being that of the so- called rare earths in series 8. The principle which is assumed to be in operation is that which is so clearly manifest in the case of hydrocarbons: successive vertical series of elements correspond to successive isologous series of homologous hydrocarbons. In the case of the hydrocarbons, the passage from one isologous series to another often takes place from a term several places removed from the origin of the series—for example, from benzene, -C6He, which may be regarded as primarily a derivative of hexane, to naphthalene, CHs, which is not an immediate derivative of benzene but of butlebenzene. It is conceivable that at the genesis of the elements a process was at work corresponding to that by which a hydrocarbon such as naphthalene is derived from benzene, and by which the former then serves in turn as the point of departure for more complex hydrocarbons of other series. There is no reason, from this point of view, why progression should not take place along a particular line and that terms should exist in a series through which this line passes but below it—for example, that antimony and iodine may bear a direct linear relationship, but that tellurium, instead of being the element in the progression series in the oxygen group, is a homologue of greater weight. The same view may be taken of selenium. In this way, it would be possible to> maintain selenium and tellurium in. the oxygen-sulphur series, from which they cannot well be separated, while retaining Mendelejeff's conception of a genetic relationship along the series. The only departure involved is in assuming that instead of forming a single linear series ascending regularly in spiral progression—a series which can, as it were, be strung- on a single spirally-wound cord—the elements closely simulate a series of homologous isoi!ogous hydrocarbons. From this point of view, it is easy also to understand that some vertical series are unrepresented. Abstracted from a paper read before the Chemical Section of the British Association.for the Aavancement of Science. tCf. Roy. Soc. Proc., 1902, vol. lxx, pp. 86-94. In discussing the chief attributes of the elements none is so difficult to deal with as that of valency, using the term in the broadest possible sense, not merely as indicative of the number of units of affinity but as including the, at present, all but incomprehensible problems of residual affinity and elementary. character. I discussed the subject somewhat fully in my former address, dwelling especially on the properties o f negative elements and their power of acting as linking agents; this view has met with ample confirmation in the interval, and will, I believe, be found to be of wide application in the future. I have already referred to the manner in which it is exemplified by silica. The greatest advance in the discussion of the problems of valency in recent years is that made by Barlow and Pope, as their method of treatment is one which applies to solid substances—the correlation of structure with crystalline form which it affects promises to be of far-reaching importance. Apart from hydrogen, carbon is the one element of certain character, always acting as a tetrad—its affinities may be only incompletely satisfied but they are always exercised, it may be supposed, even in ethe- noid and similar compounds; carbon monoxide apparently is the only exception to this rule, its relative inactivity being one of the most puzzling enigmas of our science, especially as the oxide becomes one of the most active of known substances when only two atoms of hydrogen are added to it. Most other elements (non-metallic) seem to vary in valency, the valency beyond a certain minimum being dependent on the nature of the association. Of late years, attention has been directed in particular to the quadrival- ency of oxygen in many of its compounds. The quadrivalency of sulphur in substances such as trimethylsulpnoni.Im iodide, Me3SI, having been proved to demonstration by the production of optically active compounds of this type (Pope and Peachey), it can no longer be supposed that in such cases we are dealing with compounds in which the negative constituents of the parent molecules are conjoined, e. g., Mel: SMe2- And yet we must contemplate the existence of such compounds as possible—in the case of nitrogen, for example, as ammonia must be supposed to form the compound NHS: OH2 in preference to the hydroxide NH4. OH, the latter being only a very minor constituent, the former 'the major component of the aqueous solution of the gas; hydrogen chloride, on the other hand, appears only to afford one product with ammonia, viz., NH4. Cl. The existence of such differences affords clear proof in the case of the non-metallic elements other than carbon that valency is not merely a variable but also a reciprocal or dependent function. There is no reason to suppose that hydrogen ever acts otherwise than as a simple monad; and the behavior of the alkalies and alkaline earths in salts would seem to justify the conclusion that they have no tendency to vary in valency, were it not for the existence of well-defined non-volatile hydrides of these metals which are clearly substances of some degree of molecular complexity. Such compounds are illustrations of the difficulties which surround the subject. It has long been clear that the exhibition of the higher valency by an element is a process of a different order from that manifest when it exerts only its lower proper valency measured in terms of positive radicles such as H or OwHm + 1 radicles. What that difference is we are unable at present to decide—carbon (together vith silicon). differs from almost all other elements, especially in combining with hydrogen and analogous radicles to the extent of its maximum valency. The proposition I made in 1888 (Phil Mag., Series V, 25, 21) that the valency lines should, in some cases, be represented as passing through the atom, so that each is capable of acting in two directions, is the only consistent mode of expressing varying valency which has been devised, the only one, moreover, by which. attention is directed to the great difference. In many cases probably there has been a tendency to exaggerate the valency value—in the case of chlorine, for example, in assuming that it functions as it heptad in the perchlorates. In this and many other instances, it suffices to assume that the chlorine and oxygen atoms are united in a closed ring, the chlorine functioning as a triad. Some such explanation will doubtless be given of the structure of the metallic ammonias and similar compounds. The co-ordination values introduced by Werner serve only to establish certain empirical relationships and are useful for the purposes- of classification. The perhaps more rational plan of dealing with such compounds suggested by A begg has a similar value. It is to the advantage of the hypothesis formulated by Barlow and Pope that the elements are represented as of constant valency in so far as their relative volume spheres of influence are concerned—the compound in which the higher valency is manifest being derived from that of lower valency by the opening out of the close packed arrangement and the insertion of certain new elements; but the fact that in such cases the volume is altered not in one direction alone in the crystalline structure but proportionately in all directions would seem to show that the volume sphere of atomic influence does actually change; the change is one, however, which affects all the atoms in the complex proportionately. At present, unfortunately, our methods of treating the problems of valency are such that we cannot in any way give expression to the energy side of the phenomena. Of late there has been talk of electrons in this connection, but what is said is little more than superficial paraphrase, in the advanced scientific slang of the day, of the ideas which have long been current: When, following Odling, we represent valency by dashes written after the elementary symbol, we give clear expression by means of a simple convention to certain ideas that are well understood by all among us who are versed in the facts; to speak of electrons and use dots instead of dashes may serve to mislead the unwary, who hang on the lips of authority, into a belief that we have arrived at an explanation of the phenomena, but those who. Known that we have reached only the let-it-be-granted stages and who feel that the electron is possibly but a figment of the imagination will remain satisfied with a symbolic system which has served us so long and so well as a means of giving simple expression to facts which we do not pretend to explain. Not a few of us who listened to the discussion of the nature of the atom at Leicester could not but feel that the physicists knew nothing of its structure and were wildly waving hands in the air in the endeavor to grasp at an interpretation which would permit of mathematical interpretation being given to the facts. Until the credentials of the electron are placed on a higher plane of practical politics, until they are placed on a practical plane,,we may well rest content with our present condition and admit frankly that our knowledge is insufficient to enable us even to venture on an explanation of valency. Aluminum Pain is made by blowing air or gas through molten aluminum while it is setting, and at the same time stirring violently. This forms a spongy or granulated metal that is easily pulverized. The powdered metal is sized and polished. In my opinion the experimental evidence is in no way satisfactory. It appears to me to be desirable that in studying the phenomena of electric discharge in gases and especially in vapors of complex substances, the horrible pitfalls should be taken into account with which the field of work is studded; unless every precaution to secure purity—precautions such as Baker and Dewar have taught us to use—be taken at every step, the conclusions based on all such observations must be open to grave doubt.
This article was originally published with the title "Chemical Elements" in s , , 210 (December 2012)