C. G. of Ky.—The manufacturera and venders of eew-ug machines are now so numerous that it is difficult to answer your question. Wheeler & Wilson, Grover & Baker, Abraham Bartholf, and numerous others make and sell good machines, but they are somewhat expensive. Watson & Wooster make a cheap and simple machine which might answer your purpose. Waterhouae & Bowes, of Charlotte, N. C, builders of gas worka, ivish to correspond with makers of the best gasstovesforwarming chambers and sleeping rooms. W. C. C. ofKy,—The works of Prof. Gillespie on am--veying and road-making are the best known to us. You can procure them of D. Appleton & Co. S. Z. H. of Texas—We cannot give the information you want respecting the machine mentioned in your letter. H. E. of Maine—Your patent will isaue soon we expect. The delay has been unavoidable, in consequence of the voluminous details which have gathered about this case, during its progress. You would have made a mistake had you taken the case from our hands and transf erred it to the party named. Depend upon it, if we cannot get the patent, the case is hopeleas, W. & B. T. of Mass.—You had better make out a drawing and desciiption of your invention, and after roading it over to some ft-iend, have him sign it, adding the date, and return it to you. By having such evidence you will be just as well off as if you had filed a caveat in the Patent Office. M. & I. of 111.—Your boiler-alarm is almost precisely like one patented by Tliomaa Kwbank, twenty-five or thirty ycar ago. A. H, of Penn.—The only instnimeot which can be employed for aiscovering magnetic Iron ore is a simple magnetic compass. Magnetic iron ore will adhere to a a magnet ; this is the test of its magnetic quality. S. S. T. of R. I.—The Patent Office returns no money which has been paid in on filing a caveat I. F. W. of Vt—There has not yet been a machine patented that will mow as well over rough ground aa over an even surface ; and we think it will probably be some time before snch a machine will be invented. Wc hit VC no complete sets of the *' Scientific American" for im to send you. D. L. of N. J.—The attaching of a subsoil plow to the beam of a common plow, so as to have the subsoil plow run in the previous furrow of the common plow, would not form a patentable combination. S. B. J. of N. Y.—We will not answer letters written in pencil, and without a proper signature. Do you understand us ? P. Van S. of Texas—Our opinions regarding mechanics differ very widely from yours. You state that a machine has been made Which givea out more power than that which impels it. This is opposed to the well-known laws of mechanics, and you will come to this Wime conclusion by further experiments. 0. S. of N. Y.—The placing of hooks on a cylinder to be used as a potato digger would not be patentable There ia no patent on it, and there is not novelty sufficient in the idea to make it a patentable subject. N. A. P., of Tenn—The subject of selling patents is Olio on which we cannot well advise, having had no experience in that line. You state that since we published your engraving, you have had applications for the purchase of rights, but you do not know whether to sell ten-itory or manufacture machines. We would sell juat in the manner people might wish to purchase, whether the entire right was wanted, or a State light, or even a single right to manufacture. Sell any way and every way that you can. A. W. M. of Eaton—A good varnish for door knobs, butts, and hinges is made of common eopal varnish, colored with good lampblack ; dry your butts, &c., in a ot room afterwards. W. P. of Ohio—The most comprehensive produe. tion on numbers is the article on the subject in the *' Encyclopedia Brittanica." which is sold separate. It is published in London. Davidson's work on mathematics is published in Edinburgh. C. E. Balliere, 290 Broaidway, this city, if addressed, will no doubt import them for you. We are not acquainted with Bendy's portable ink, "requiring no pen." C. P. W. of Tenn.—A good shampooing fluid is made by adding one pint of castor oil to five of strong alcohol, and an ounce of the tincture of cantharides. The addition of half an ounce of -sulphuric ether rep-dera it excellent f ornervous headache. Money received at the Scientific American Office on account of Patent Office business, forthe weekending Saturday, February 20,1858 :— R. W., of Conn., $50 ; 0. L. R., of N. H., $55; E.. B., Jr., of N. Y., $55 : J. J., of N, J., $30 ; D. & M., o*" III., $35 ; W. J. S., of N. Y., $50 ; T. S. R., of Ga., $30 ' I. B. J.. of Cal., $20 ; I. P. W. D., oflnd., $25 ; J. & . L. F., of Texas, $25 ; H. W. W. of Cal., $25; R. B., o Ohio, $55; W. R. L., of Conn., $10; I. F. E., of Conn. $30 ; J. W., of Conn., $25 ; A. A., of L. I., $25 ; F. N., of L. I., $2 ; I. R.. of L. I, $25 ; P. S., of Va., $30 ; R. B., of N. Y., $55 ; O. S., of N. Y., $30 ; W. W. H., of Ohio, $30; T. H., ofL. I., $30; J. S. D'.,of N. V.. $30 ; W. Z., of Pa., $30 ; H. S. V.. of N. Y., $10 ; L. & D., of Wis., $30; G. W. H., of Conn., $32; G. S., of Ga., $5; W. A. S., of Mass., $25; J. D. B., of N. Y., $28. Specifications and dra wings belonging to parties with the following initials ha ve been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, February 20,1858 :— J. J. L. F., of Texas; S. G., of Mich.; 0. L. R., of N. H. ; E. B., Jr., of N. Y. ; W. H. D., of Cal. ; I. P W. D., of Ind. ; T. A. DeL., of N. Y. ; D. & M., of 111.' G. I. M., of Conn. ; C. D., of Pa. ; G. W. H., of Conn. E. B. W., of N. H. ; I. R-, of L. I. ; J. S., ot Ga. ; W A. S ofMass.; J. W., of Conn. ; W. J. S., of N, Y.;* J. J. J., ol N. J. Literary Notices TUE CiiKMiSTET AND MKTALLEGY OF COPPER-By A. Snowden Piegott.M.D. Lindsay & Blakiston, Philadelphia. This book is intended to be a sort of h andbook of copper for the miner or smelterj and as such we oan recommendit, aa it contains the pith of much which has been written hy others on the subject The author ia evidently largely indebted to Phillip's MctaUnrgy" for much of his information, and we do not think the book would have been injured had credit been given. PEACTIOAL MINREALOGY, ASSAYING ANTI MINING-By F. Overman, Lindsay* Blakiston, Philadelphia. Mr. Overman has produced a work that has been long wanted,' that is, a collection of iho&G facts which areof use to practical men, and so arranged that theycaily obtain the knowledge they iwquire, without having to first wade through a whca volume of (to theai) uninteresting technologicapliraees and claasificaton. We have no doubt that all who are engaged in milling will find it a most useful adjunct to theirlibraffies. WESTMINSTER REVIEW—The number for this quarter of the above Review, published by Leonard Scott &Co., Gold street thisCity, contains a splendid article on "African Life,' being a review of Dr. Livingston's'travels. It also contains seven other essays, besides reviews of cotemporaneouB literature, which form a peculiar and attractive featare of the Review. One of the articles on the "Religious Weaknesses of Protestantism,'' is presumptuous and shallow on the subject THE CALTFOSNIA FAEMEE is a weekly paper published in San Francisco, and contains agricultural matter of the greatest interest to all who reside in that portion of our country. To Our Subscribers RECEIPTS—When money is paid at the office for subscriptions, a re.ceii)tforit will always be given ; but when subscribers remit their money by mail, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a bona fide. acknowledgment of the receipt of their funds. The Post Office law does not allow publishers to enclose receipts, in che paper. BACK NUMBKKS.—After the Ist of January, we shall commence sending the SCIBNTIFIO AMEBICAN to new subscribers from the time their names are received, unless the personordering expresses a desire to receive the back numbers, in which case complete sets will be furnished from the commencement of the volume. Important to Inventors AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT SOLICITORS.-Meesra. MNN & CO., Proprietors of the SCIENTIFIC AMRKIOAN, continue to procure patents for inventors in the United Statesand all foreign countries on the post liberal terms. Our experience is of twelve years' standing, and our facilities are nn-equaled by any othei;,; agency In the world. The Ions experience we have'had in preparing specifications and drawings has rendered us perfectly con veriant with thpi mode of doini buaiifss at the United States Patent Office, and with moat of the inventions which have been patented. Information concerning the patentability of inventions is freely given, without charge, on sending a model or drawing and description to this office. Consultation may be had with the firm, between nine and four o'clock, daily, at their principal office. 128 Fulton street. New York. We hare lately established a Branch Acency on the comer of F. and Seventh streets, Washinston (opposite the United States Patent Office). This office is under the general superintendence of one of the firm, and ia in daily communication with the Principal Office in New York, and personal attention will be given at the Patent Office to all such cases aa may require it. We are very extensively engaged in the preparation and securing of patents in the varions European countries. For the transaction of this business we have offices at NOB. 66 Chaneerr Lane, London ; 29 Bonle-vard Saint Martin, Paris ; and 3 Rue Therrsienne, Brussels. We think we mar safely say that three-fourths of all the F,nropoan patents ascured to American citizeas are procured through our Agency. Circulars of information concerning the proper course to be pursued in ohtninins; patents tiirough our Agency, the requirements of the Patent Office. &c.. may he had gratis upon application at the principal office or either of the branches. Communications and remittances should be addressed to MNN & COMPANY, No. 128 Fulton street. New York. The annexed ' letter from the late Commissioner of Patents we commend to the perusal of all persons interested in obtaining patents :— MEBSRIS. MUNN & Co.—I take pleasure in stating that while I held the office of Commissioner of Patents, MORE THAN ONE-FOCKTH OP ALL THE BUSINESS OF THK OFFICE came through your hands. I have no doubt that the public confidence thus indicated has been fully deserved, as I have always observed, in all your intercourse with the Office, a marked degree of promptness, skill, and fidelity to the interests oi your employers. Yours, very truly, CHAS. MASON. HEICH'S CELEBRATED EGG BEATER, just patented, mixes Eggs, Cream, &c., with essences, spices, &c.. in a beautiful manner in ten to fifteen seconds. The greatest desideratim ever invented in cookery.—Rights for Sale—a splendid chance for investment HEICH & BROTHER. Cincinnati, Ohio. WATER WHEELS, WATER WHEELS I Bladensburgh, Prince Georges Co., Md., Feb. 2nd, 1858. This is to certify that Messrs. Heath, Stevenson & Burnham, of Laurel Factory, Md., have put up for me one of H. Vandewater's Improved Jonval Turbine water wheels, 3 feet 8 inches in diameter, that rents 220 inches of water under a head and fall of 5 feet, that will grind 10 bushels of fine com meal, or chop 15 bushels of rye and corn per hour. It la proper to state that the ahove Turbine wheel displaced a 13 foot 4inch in diameter and 6 foot wide undershot water wheel, (which was attached to the same pair of mill stones) and the best I could do with the undershot was to grind bushels per hour, using more water than the Turbine does. I likewise would say that the work done by the above gentleman cannot be surpassed either in workmanship or durability. HENRY WALKER. I fully concur with the above statement of the Rev H. Walker, and bemga practical millwright, sav. I consider the ahove Turbine water wheel one of the hest improvements before the public. _ CALEB MARRIOTT. N. F. Burnham is our authorieed agent for the sale of wheels and State ights In all Southern States. All letters addressed to him at Laurel Factory, Md., will meet with prompt attention. H. VANDEWATER & CO. STEPHENS' STAINS FOR WOOD-AT half the cost of pait dyeing, and bringing out the grain of pine or any inferior wood, so as to resemble black walnut, rosewood, mahogany, or satinwood. Sam-plea and prospectuses free to all parts of the States. HENRY STEPHENS, chemist, London. and 70 William street. New York. MODELS MADE AT JOHN STOKELLS Clock Factory—26 Platfc street,'New York City,— on reasonable terms. CHINESE SUGAR CANE SEED FOR SALE by the pound or bushel. Also cane mills, pans, distilleries, and steam-brewing apparatus. One alcohol still runs 100 gallons per day. JOHN H. CORNELL, No. 11 Old SUp, New York. WILL BUY ONE-HALF OF THE (JPOYUUU patent right of my Whiffletree—patented July 7, 1857,—including New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, and twelve other States. Address D. A. SMITH, No. 50, 4r-street, Washington, D. C. STEAM WmSl'LES — IMPROVED PAT-terns roarmtCctured by HAYDEN, SANDERS & CO., 306 Pearl street, New York. pOLD PENS REPOINTEI) EQUAL TO VI NEW—Price 25 cents by mail, with returnpostage. Address L. H. MARTIN, 253 West 25th st.. New York. NOTICE IS HEREBY CIVEN THAT THE copartnership between B. Moore and W. S. Clark, has been dissolved, and by ai-rangements made, all debts and amounts'due to, and payable by, the late firm of Moore & Clark, are to be received and paid by Mr. B. Moore. The business will h? conducted, as heretofore, under the firm of B. MOORE & CO., 133 High Ilolborn, Lon-don. Merchants and Manufacturers of British and American machines, and negotiators for the sale of patents and patent rights. MACHINERY FOR SALE—TWO of WOOD-WORTH'S PLANERS. Plane 24 inches wide. Xto 4 inches thick, weight 1800 lbs., price, $180 (iron frames). Planers that plane from 12 to 24 inches wide, price from $50 to $450, all iron frames; and new machines, warranted pei-fect Two of Daniel's Planer's, second-hand, plane 40 feet long, 24 wide—one plane 16 feet long, 24 wide, with two extra arms, &c. ; these machines are nearly new, price for 40 feet plane, $250. the 16 feftt plane, $200r One Steam Engine, 7 horse power, with Montgomery's Patent Cut-off attached, cost $500, price $300, only been used one year. One Tubular Boiler, 12 horse power, cost $625, price $325; in good order, and been but little used. All the above machinery delivered in New York free of charge to the purchasers. For particulars, address HARRISON FLINT, Danbury, Connecticut. RIGHTS FOR SALE of a PATENT LIME-KILN which will burn less wood or coal, and more lime, than any other m use. Address A. G. ANDERSON, Quincy, Illinois. PAPER MILL FOR .SALE, OR TOT.EASE i —Tlie subscribers offer for aa le or to rent their Mill, situated in North Bennington, Vt., and on the railroad, thirty miles cast of 'Ti-oy, N. Y.-Said mill was built fouryears ago,ianow running.in complete order, and has all the fixtures tor making hanging, printingorbook paper. To any one wishing to purchase, it will be sold low, and terms of payment made easy. A large portion of the money can remain on bond and moi-tgage. For further particnlars address the aubscrihf.TS at North Bennington, Vt. TIUTCHER & WELLING. ANOTHER WONDER — BAT.DWIN'S TUR-hine Water Wheel (represented in No. 51, Volume XII. Sci. AM.,) gives from 'S to 97 per cent of power, according to the size of wheel and head employed. Usual sizes, with 4 to 25 feet fall, give 80 to 90 per cent For information address S. K. BALDWIN, Laconia, N. H. SOD CORN PLANTERS—PERSONS WISII-ing to purchase territory or an interest in my Sod Corn Planter, (which was patented January 2i). 1858,) can address me at Homer, Champaign county. 111. P. C. MOSIER. SWISS DRAWING INSTRUMENTS — A full stock of these celebrated instruments always on hand. Catalogue, 4th edition, with 250 illustrations of Mathematical,Optical and Philoeophicalinatrnments, and attachment of illastrated-,sheet representing the Swiss instruments in the actua:! ze and shape, will be delivered, on application, to all parts of the United States, by sending 12 cents in poatace atampa. Addreas C. T. AMSLER, 685 Chctnut st., Philadelphia, Pa. QQUIRE'S SELF-DISCHARGING HORSE lO RAKE—Patented December 37 1. The most simple, durable, effectual, and only la&er-saving rake invented. Rights for sale. Send foraciWttlnr. JOHN J. SQUIRE, BuofcerHill, IlL WOODWORTH IMPROVED-TWO GOLD Medala have"been awarded to me Iw-my patented improvements upon the celebrated Wocworth Plan-i ng Machine. The above awards, and the hma number of these machine now in operation, fully monatrate their great superiority over all others. Miunes of all sizes constantly for sale. ____ JAMES A. WOODBURY, 69 Sudbury st, Boston, Mass. BOILER FliUES-ALL SIZES, AND ANY length deeired, promptly furnished by JAMES O. MORSE & CO., 79 John at.. New York. HARRISON'S GKIST MILLS—20, 30, S6 AND 48 inches diameter, at $100, $200, $300 and $400, with all the modern improvements. Also, Portable and Stationary Stam Engines of all sizes, suitable for said Mills. Also, Bolters, Elevators, Belting, &c., &c. Apply to S. C. HILLS, 12 Piatt st. New York. SWISS DRAWING TJVSTRUMENTS - A full stock of these celebrated instruments always on hand. C. T. AMSLER, (formerly Amaler & Wirz,) Philadelphia, Pa. ENGINEERING - THE UNDERSIGNED IS prepared to furnish specifications, estimates, plana in genera' or drtfl of steamships, steamboats, propellers, high and, low pressure engines, boilers and machinery ot even' description. Broker in steam vessels, machinery, boilers, &c. General Agent for Ashcroft's Steam and Vacuum Gages, Allen & Noyes' Metallic S elf-ad justing Conical Packing, Faber's Water Gage, Sewell's Salinometers, Dudgeon's Hydraulic Lifting Press, Roebling's Patent Wire Rope for Hoisting and Steermg purposes. Machinery Oil of the most approved kind. &c. CHARLES W. COPELAND, Consulting Engineer, 64 Broadway, New York. READ-NEW CATALOGUE, (FOURTH EDITION), with two hundred and fifty illustrations of Mathematical, Optical and Philosophical Instruments, and attachment of a large illustrated sheet, representing the Swiss instruments in their actualsize and shape, will be delivered, on application, to all parts of the United States, by sending 12 cents in postage stamps or money, which amount will be deducted from the bill, if an order ia sent. C. T. AMSLER, No. 635 Chestnut at, Philadelphia, Pa. EFORBES, ARTIST, 89 NASSAU STREET, New York, Mechanical and General Draughtsman on Wood, Stone, &c. WROUGHT IRON PIPE—PLAIN AND GAL-vanized, sold at wholesale by JAMES O. MORSE & CO.,' 79 John St.. New York. STEAM ENGINES, STEAM BOHJERS, Steam Puinp. Saw and Grist MillB, Marble Mills, Rice Mills, Quartz Mills for gold quartz, Sugar Mills, Water Wheels, Shafting and Pulleys. The largest assortment of the above m the country, kept constantly oil hand by WM. BRDON, 102 Front street, Brooklyn, HARRISON'S 30 INCH GRAIN MILLS-Latest Patent__A supply constantly on hand. Price $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. WOODWORTH PTNERS-IRON FRAMES, to plane 18 to 24 inches wide—at $90 to $110. For sale by S. C. HILLS, 12 Piatt street, New York. CM. CRESSON'S CELLULAR GAS RE-. TORT—Patented October 3,1854—adapted to the manufacture of gas from wood, and other vegetable substances, and now in use at the Philadelphia Gas Works. Patent rights for sale. For information apply to HENRY S. HAGERT, attorney for patentee, at the south-east comer of Walnut and Sixth sts., Philadelphia, Pa. ALCOTT'S CONCENTRIC LATHE-THIS Lathe is capable of turning under 2 inches in diameter with onl;y the trouble ot changing the dies and patterns to the size wanted. It will turn smooth over swells or depressions of % to the inch, and works as smoothly as on a straight line, and does excellent work. Price $25, (without frames,) hoxed, and shipped with directions for setting up. For sale by MUNN & CO., 128 Fulton etreet. New Yoi'k City. SECOND-HAND MACHINISTS* TOOI.S-Consistingof20 Engine Lathes, 9 Iron Planers, 4 Upright Drills, Hand Lathes, Chuck Lathe, Gear Cutters and Vices, all in good order, and for sale low for cash. For particulars, address FRANKLIN SKINNER, 14 Whitney avenue. New Haven, Conn. STEAM PUMPS, BOILER FEED PUMPS, Stop Valves, Oil Cups, Cocks, Steam and Water (ages, Bold by JAMES O. MORSE & CO., No. V John street, New York. MACHINE BELTING, STEAM PACKING, ENGINE HOSK—The superiority of these articles, manufactured of vulcanized rubber, is established. Every belt will be warraoted superior to leather, at one-third less price. T-b Steam Packing is made in every variety, and warrantea; to Stand SOO degs. of heat The nose never needs oiling, and is warranted to Ptand any required pressure ; together with all varieties of rubber adapted tt mechaaiia purposes. Directions, prices, &c., canbeoiMadthy mail or otherwise, at our warehouse. NKW3ELTING AND PACKING COMPANY. JOHN . CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. 6 Dey street, NwYork. NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO.-Machinists' Tools, Iron Planers, Engine and Hand Lathee, Drills, Bolt Cutters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, &c., on hand and finishing. These tools are of superior quality, and are for sale low for cash or approved paper. For cuts giving full description and prices, address "New Haven Manufacturing Co., Hew Haven, Conn.* ENGRAVING ON WOOD AND MECHANICAL DRAWING, 4)y RICHARD TEN EYCK, Jr., 128 Fulton street, New York, Engraver to the Scientific American. WOODWORTH PLANING MACHINES.-Having over $40,000 worth now completed, I will sell, from this time henceforth, at a very reduced price, and am ready to construct any sizes not on hand at short notice. JOHN H. LESTER. 57 Pearl st., Brooklyn, Long Island. LAP-WELDED IRON BOILER TUBES— Pressor's Patent.—Every article necessary to drill the tube-plates and set the tubes in the best manner. THOS. PROSSER & SON, 28 Piatt st, New York. SAWS.-HOB&CO.'SPATENT GROUNDSAWS Plastenu g Trowels, &c., can he had, wholesale and retail, at the principal hai-dware stores, at tiie salesrooms of the manufacturers, 29 and 31 Gold street, or at the works corner of Broome, Sheriff and Columbia sts.. New York. Illustrated catalogues, containing prices and information interesting to sawyers generally, will be sent by post on application. LIME.—PAGE'S PERPETUAL KILN-PAT-cnted July, 1857. Superior to any in use for wood or coal. 24 cords of wood, or IM tuns of coal to 100 bis. —coal not mixed with stone. Address C. D. PAGE, Rochester, N. Y. WELCH & GRIFFITHS-ESTABLISHED 1830—Manufacturers of Improved Patent Ground and Warranted Extra Fine Cast Steel Saws, of the various kinds now in use in the different sections of the United States and the Canadas, and consisting of the celebrated Circular Saw, Graduated Cross Cut and Tenon, Gang, Mill, Pit, Segment, Billet and Felloe Saws, &c., &G. For sale at their warehouse, No. 48 Congress street, Boston, Mass. f\n.i OIL: OIL:-FOR RAILROADS, STEAM- yj ERS, and for machinery and burning. Pease's Improved Machinery and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and irill not gum. This dl possesses qualities vitally essential for lubricating and burning, and found in no other oiL It is offered to the public upon the most reliablCj thorough and practical test. Our most skillful engineers and machinists pronounce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that ia in all caaes reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, after several tests, pronounced it " superior to any other they have ever used for ma-chineiy." For sale only by the inventor and manufacturer, F. S. PEASE, 61 Main at. Buffalo, N. Y. N. B.—Reliable orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe. EXCELSIOR STEAM PUMPS, DIRECT and Douhle-Acting, manufactured and sold at 55 and 57 First st, WilUamshurgh, N. Y., and 301 Pearl St., New York. Blay be seen in operation at J. O. Morse & Co., 79 John st, New York, GUILD, GARRISON & CO. VAIL'S. SPEEDWELL IRON WORKS, Mornstown, N. J., manufacture Craig's Patent Double-acting Balance Valve Oscillating Steam Engines both stationary and portable, Knowles' Patent Muley, Portable, Gang and Re-sawing Mills, Sugar and Chinese Cane Millg And Sugar Pans, Grist Mills, fill Irons, Rich's \Var-wheels, Forgings and Castings. Orders for the above, and all descriptions of labor-saving machinery will receive prompt attention. JOHN H. LIDGERWOOD & 00., No. 9 GoldBtreet, New York.
This article was originally published with the title "Correspondents" in Scientific American 13, 25, 199 (February 1858)