H. L. S., of N. H__If a patent is extended, it docs not affect the right of parties to run such machines as they had in operation before the extension was granted. Such right is clearly recognized by judicial decisions. J. W. F, of Minn—For the information you want address W. B. Leonard, American Institute, New York city. C. C of N. Y.—From the seed of the potato we should not have had a useful plant in less than three years ; from the tuber we possess it in a single summer. R. &., of Misa—The flowering of plants is subject to a law of periodicity and habit. Alpine plants do not wait for the sun's heat, bnt exert such a struggle to blossom that the flowers are seen among the unmelted enow. W. S. B., of Mo.—Common plaster will not answer fur rough brick walls exposed to the weather, it will soon crack off; and hydraulic cement and sand is still worse. You must make up a cement of boiled linseed oil, containing a drier, (such as litharge,) and mix this with some brick dust, dry pipe clay, and fine sand, and put it on with a trowel. The bricks should receive two coata of boiled linseed oil before this cement is put on. D. J. H., ot Ohio.—Cast steel bells are made and sold by Messrs. Naylor & Co., this city. Such bells are cast to weigh from 35 to 6,000 pounds, and have been used with success for about six years in the Canadas and in the north of Europe. The price per pound at which these bells are sold is 28 cents for all that weigh over 65 pounds. H. D. F., of Mass.—We have placed your letter on file, and await your future orders in reference to the progress of your invention. R. A. D., of Mass.—It is reasonable to suppose that after an application for a patent has been on file for one year, and no patent issued for the invention, that the application has been refused. Still there may be circumstances which will delay a case for that length of time. S. W., of N. Y.—It is the opinion of many geologists that there was a period in the history of the earth when the atmosphere was more highly charged with carbonic acid gas and moisture than at present, and that plants of a larger species then flourished in luxuriance, their light being obtained through a warm but cloudy atmosphere. This is the period mentioned in Genesis, prior to the time when, it is stated, the sun was put in the heavens. There seems to be a harmony between the seriesof creations recorded in the Scriptures and the revelations of geology. D. G. B., of Ohio—Alcohol is a compound of 24 parts of carbon, by weighty with six of hydrogen, and sixteen of oxygen. It cannot be made, however, by the direct union of its elements, but has to be separated by fermentation from other substances, as grain and sugar. R. H. C, of N. Y.—The mirage i. a meteorological phenomenon, depending partly on the vapor of the atmosphere, and partly on the intermixture of strata of air of different temperatures and densities. It assumes the appearance of a sheet of water, often exhibiting the reflected or inverted images of distant objects. R M., of Fla.—We do not know where the moss saddle rugs are manufactured. Perhaps Borne of our readers can inform you. W. T. H., of Ind.—By assuming another person's name in your correspondence with us, hoping thereby to get favors, you have placed yourself beyond the right of consideration from us, and we therefore decline all further correspondence with you. E. T. Paine, of Charleston, S, C, wishes to purchase the best and most complete machine for cutting and dressing staves thirty-two inches long for cypress or molasses barrels, and also adapted to shingle cutting and dressing. P. A. R of Pa.—Conducting water through a coiled tube arranged in the bottom of a well between the head and point of exit, for the purpose of cooling the water is an old idea, and therefore not patentable. W. S. M., of Conn—Bevel gear is more expensive at first than belt and pulleyforyour saw mill, but will not cost so much for repairs, if properly cast and cut. We are in favor of bevel gearing in many cases, but not in all S. F. C, of Ohio.—Orpiment is a general name for two sulphurets of arsenic, the yellow orprismatoidal sulphuret, and the red or ruby sulphuret. They are both used as paints, the yellow being the coloring body of the paint known as " king's yellow." J. B.,of 111.—There is no water in the moon—the dark spots being valleys, not lakes. Money received at the Scientific American Office on account of Patent Office business, for the week ending Saturday, May 8,1858 :— I. F. B., of Ga., $25 ; L. & G., of Conn., $30 ; C. C. W., of N. J., $55 ; B. H. W., of Mo., $55; B. B. M., of Fla., $25; K F., of Wis.,$25; J. O., of Md., $10; J. M. N., of Iowa, $58 ; A. M. P., of N. Y., $25; S. W., of N. Y., $250 ; T. S., of N. Y., $25 ; G. B. B., of Conn., $25 ; G. W. C, of 111., $60 ; G. W. L., of Texas, $33 ; A. H., Jr., of Conn., $57 ; A. J. B. F., of Ind., $25 ; S. N. C, of 111., $15 ; J. C. B,ofN. Y., $35; J. & H., of N. Y.,$60; A. D. B.,of Mass., $25; G. H., of Mass., $60 ; D. B. W., of N. Y., $25 ; W. R., of Mich., $30 ; M.JM. S., of 111., $30; A. W. W., of Conn., $37 ; G. G., of I1L, $5; L. H., of La., $33; S. T., of N. J.,$56; J. M., of N. J., $30 ; H.H. L.,of R.I.,$30; H. &W., of Mich., $30 ; A. E. P., of Vt., $27 ; H. S. R, of Mass., $30 ; S. M. C., of Wis., $25 ; J. S. B., of S. C, $30 ; S. C. C, of Mich., $30 ; C. D., of L. I., $25 ; J. & D., of I N. Y- $25 ; J. E., of N. Y-, $55 ; J. H O, of N. Y., I $110 ; G. H. L., of N. J., $18 ; A. D. B., of N. Y., $B5. Specifications and dra wings belonging to parties with ir the following initials have been forwarded to the Pat- ent Office during the week ending Saturday, May 8,1858 :— A. J., of 111. ; G. B. B., of Conn. ; L. & G., of Conn.; R. & S., of Ohio ; B. B. M., of Fla. ; N. C, of Ohio ; K. F., of Wis. ; S. N. C, of 111. ; G. W. S., oflnfl. ; D. B. W., of N. Y. ; A. D. B., of Mass. ; A. M. P., of N. Y. ; E. V. S., of Miss. ; A. J. B. F., of Ind. ; C, D., of L. I. ; J. M. C,of Wis. ; G. G., oflll. ; J. &D., of N. Y. ; A. W. W., of Conn. W. D., Jr., of Pa. ; N. W. B., of Vt. ; H. S. F., of Mass. ; J. M. N., of Iowa; J. E., ofN. Y. ; A. D. B., of N. Y. ; W. B.,of N. Y. ; L. E. H., of N. Y. Important to Inventors AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT A SOLICITORS.—Messrs. M0N.N & CO., Proprietors of the SCIENTIFIC AMESTOAK, continue to procure patents for inventors in the United States and all foreign countries on the most liberal terms. Our experience is of twelve years1 standing, and our facilities are tin-equaled toy any other agency in the world. The long experience we nave had in preparing specifications and drawings has rendered us perfectly1 conversant with the mode of doing business at the United Stakes Patent Office, and with most of the inventions which have been patented. Information concerning the patentability of inventions is freely given, without eharge, on sending a model or drawing and description to this of Ree. Consultation may be had with the firm, between nine and four o'clock, daily, at then" principal office, 128 Fulton street, New York. We have lately established a Branch Agency on the comer i R and Seventh streets Washington (opposite the United States Patent Office). This office is under the general superintendence of one of the firm, and is in dally communication with the Principal Office in New York* and personal attention will be given at the Patent Office to all such eases as may require it. We are very extensively engaged In the preparation and securing of patents Sn the Tarions Ktiropean countries. For the transaction of this business we have offices at NOB. 66 Chancery Lane London ; 29 Boulevard St Martin, Paris; and 26 Rue des Eperonniera, Brussels. We think we may safely say that three-fourths of all the European patents secured fco Americas, citizens are procured through our Agency. Circulars of information concerning the proper course to be pursued in obtaining patenta through our Agency, the requirements of the Patent Office, &c,, may be has gratis upon application at the principal office or either of the branches, Comnraaieations and remittances should be addressed to MUNH & COMPANY, Ho. 138 Fulton street* Hew York. The annexed letter from the late Commissioner of Patents we commend to the perusal of all persons interested in obtaining patents :— MESSRS. MPNN & Co.—I take pleasure in stating that while I held the office of Commissioner of Patenta, MORE THAN ONE-POUETH OF ALL THE BUSINESS OF THE OFFICE came through your hands. I have no doubt that the public confidence thus indicated has beeu fully deserved, as I have always observed, in all your intercourse with the Office, a marked degree of promptness, skill, and fidelity to the interests of your employers. Yours, very truly, CHAS. MASON. 1VTEW YORK WIRE BALLING CO.—COM-1 positelron Railing (secured by letters patent) is the strongest iron fence made of wrought iron. Its durability is equivalent to its strength ; its beauty shows for itself; and as to price, it is cheaper than any iron railing manufactured. We are prepared to furnish all styles of wire and cast iron railings, &c, iron gates, verandahs, farm fences, iron bedsteads, iron furniture, iron foundry work. The public is respectfully informed that we are the only persons legally authorized to sell Wickersham's Folding Iron Bedsteads. Catalogues, containing several hundred designs of iron work, furnished on application. HUTCHINSON & WICKERSHAM, No. 312 Broadway, New York. RIGHTS FOR SALE OF A PATENT SELF-Regulating Windmill, that has been well tested. It operates safely, and makes a steady power in the hardest gales. Great inducements given to agents and dealers. Address A. G. Field, Quincy, 111. IMPORTANT TO UAS AND STEAM FIT- -B- TERS—Hudgin's Patent Coupling for pipes can he seen at Messrs. ARCHER, WARNER & CO'S, 376 Uroadtvay. State, County and Town rights are for .sale. This invention (Pat. April li, 1858,) greatly facilitates the work of attaching branches and making extensions. Persons desiring to purchase this invention can communicate with the patentee by leaving their address at ARCHER, WARNER & CO.'S, No. 376 Broadway, New York. MACHINISTS' TOOLS FOR SALE AT HALF PRICE.—I will sell the remainder of the tools belonging to the estate of John Parahley at half price, if called for soon. Said tools are new and in good order. They consist in part as follows :—One 18 foot planer, one 4 foot planer, 10 hand lathes, 2 spliner drills, 13 No. 1 drills, 1 bolt header, 1 shaft straightener, plane centers and jaws, chucks, all sizes. &e., &c. N. B. SPEEBY Trustee, New Haven, Conn, A SAFE. GOOD BUSINESS, REQUIRING SMALL CAPITAL.—Any person living within four or five miles of a town, containing 3,000 or more inhabitants, can secure to themselves a good business by purchasing the right, with requisite machinery for cuttingDaniel's Granular Fuel. This fuel consists of the swamp growth of brushwood and twigs, and trimmings of trees cut into lengths of about four inches. The machine will cut up with two horae power and two men 1,000 bushels per day. The material wherever introduced isDreferred to charcoal or split wood for kindling coal or wood fires, and is found to be a most superior article fora summer fuel. As a patent is secured for cutting this material by machinery, all parties who purchase territory can have exclusive sale in that territory. Allcommunicationsaddressedto B. D. WASH-BURN, Taunton, Mass., General Agent lor the United States, will meet with prompt attention. MACHINISTS TOOLS—A FULL SUPPLY OF every variety, and superior quality, now on hand, and made to order at short notice. Railroads supplied., Also one 8-horse upright engine, in complete order; price $300. CARPENTER & PLASS, No. 479 First ave., New York. ftAA AGENTS WANTED-TO SELL FIVF OUUU NEW INVENTIONS,—Agents have made $25,000 on one. No other agency so good. Send stamp and get 80 pages particulars! gratis. EPHRAIM BROWN, Lowell, Mass. PAGE'S PATENT PORTABLE CIRCULAR SAW MILL, and Portable Steam Engines and Boilers mounted on substantial wheels, ready to saw lumber, thrash wheat or gin cotton. Our Mills will saw trom 2,000 to 10,000 feet per day. Address G-EO. PAGE &, CO., Baltimore Md. PATENT OFFICE MODELS CAREFULLY made on scientific principles, at low prices, by H. SHLARBAUM & CO., 300 Broadway, New York. Eef-erences at the office of this paper. ANOTHER WONDER —BALDWIN'S TUB XJL bine Water Wheel (represented in No. 51, Volume XII, Soi* AU. , gives from 75 to 0? per cent of power, according to the aim of wheel and head employed. Usual sizes, with 4 to 25 feet fall, give 80 to 90 per cent. For information address & K, BALDWIN, Laconia, N. H. WOODWORTH PliANERS-IRON FRAMES to plane 18 to 24 inches wide—at $90 to $110. For sale by S. C. HILLS, 12 Platt street New York. PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES. - S. C. HILLS, 12 Platt street, New York, offers for sale these Engines, with Boilers, Pumps, Heaters, etc., all complete, suitable for printers, carpenters, farmers, planters, &c. A 23 borae can be seen in store : it occupies a space 5 by 3 feet ; weight, 1,500 lbs. ; price, $240. Other sizes in proportion. STEAM ENGINES, STEAM BOILERS, Steam Pumps. Saw and Grist Mills, Marble Mills, Rice Mills, Quartz Mills for gold quartz, Sugar Mills,-Water Wheels, Shafting and Pulleys. The largest assortment of the above in the country, kept constantly on hand by WM. BUftDON, 102Front street, Brooklyn, HARRISON'S 30 INCH GRAIN MUXS-Latest Patent.—A supply constantly on hand. Price $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. rpHE WORKS OF THE AUBIN GAM CO., JL (General Office, No. 44 State st., Albany N. Y.,) as now perfected, re adapted to all materials and localities, and are in successful operation in villages*, factories, and private dwellings. For full information aa to cost, probable income of public 'works, &c., apply aa above. For plans, &c. see SCIENTIFIC AMBKIOAN of March 18th. SBCOND-HANB MACHINISTS TOOLS— Cosseting of 20 Engine Lathes, 9 Iron Planera, 4 Upright Drills, Hand Lathes, Chuck Lathe, GearCat-tera and Vices, all in, good order, and for sale low for cash. For particulars, address FRANKLIN SKIHNEK 14 Whitney avenue, Hew Haven, Conn JVfACHNB BELTINO, STEAM FACKINt iTJ. ENGINE HOSE—The superiority of these articles, manufactured of vulcanized rubber, is established. Every belt will be warranted superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Steam Packing is made in every variety, and warranted to stand 800 degB. of heat. The nose never needs oiling, and is warranted to stand any required pressure ; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to mediameal purposes. Direction, prices, &a, can be obtained by mail or otherwise, at mit warehouse. NEW OEK BELTING ANB PACKING-COMPANY. JOHN H. CHEEVEB, Treasurer, Ho. 8 Dey street-, Hew York. PECU'S PATENT BROP PRESS —FOE J&welers, tin and copper workers, gun and other forcings, &c, raamiiaetared by the patentee MXLQ P'CK & CO., New Haven, Conn, NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO— Machinists' Tools, Iron Planera, Engine and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cutters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, &c., on hand and finishing. These tools are of superior quality, and are for sale low for cash or approvedpaper. For cuts giving full description and prices, address "New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, (Joan.1 ENOKAVING ONWOOB AMD MECHANICAL DRAWING, by EICHAED TEN EYCK, Jr., 1S8 Fulton street, New York, Engraver to the Scientific American. STEAM WHISTLES — IMPROVED PAT-terns manufactured by HAYDEN, SANDERS & CO., 306 Pearl street, NewYork. WOODWORTH PLANING MACHI ES— Having over $40,0(TOorh now completed, I will sell, from this time henceforth, at a very reduced price, and am reaY to construct any sizes not on hand at short notice. JOHN H. LESTEE, 57 Pearl st, Brooklyn, Long Island. LAP-WELDEB IRON BOILER TUBE&-Proffeer's Patent.—Every article necessary to drill the tube-plates and set the tubes hi the best manner. THOS. PROS8ER & SON, 28 Platt st, New York. OIL! OIL! OIL!—FOR RAILROADS, STEAMERS, and for machinery and burning. Pease's Improved Machinery and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and will not gum. This oil possesses qualities vitally essential for lubricating and burning, and found in no other oil It is offered to the public upon the most reliable, thorough and practical test. Our most skillful engineers and machinists pronounce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that ia in all cases reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, alter several tests, pronounced it "superior to any other they have ever used for machinery." For sale only by the inventor and manufacturer, F. S. PEASE, 61 Main st., Buffalo, N. Y. N. B.—Reliabl e orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe, VAIL'S SPEEDWELL IRON WORKS, T MorriBtown, N..J., manufacture Craig's Patent Double-acting Balance Valve Oscillating Steam Engines both stationary and portable, Knowles Patent Muley, Portable, Gang and Re-sawing Mills, Sugar and Chinese Cane Mills and Sugar Pans, Grist Mills, Mill Irons, Rich's Water-wheels, Forgings and Castings. OrderH for the above, and all descriptions of labor-saving ma-chinerv will receive prompt attention. JOHN H. LIDGERWOOD & CO., No. 9 Goldstreet, New York. MACHINERY—IF YOU WANT THE BEST Portable or Stationary Steam Engines, Wood-worth's orDaniels Planers, or any other Kind of machinery for working wood for the least amount of money, address HARRISON FLINT, Danbury, Conn. CORLISS PATENT STEAM ENGINES— About 250, moat of them from 40 to 400 horse power, are now in operation. On application, pamphlets will be sent (by mail), containing statements of responsible manufacturing companies where these engines have been furnished, for the saving of fuel, in periods varying from 2H to 5 years. Boilers, shafting, and gearing. CORLISS STEAM ENGINE CO., Providence, R. I. PEA SHELLING MACHINE—PATENTED by W. J. Stevenson, March 30. 1858. This machine is admirably adapte_d to the use of hotels, dining saloons, boarding houses, private families, pea growers, and pea preservers. State rights for sale. Address the patentee at No. 438 Third avenue, New York City. See engraving on page 34, Vol. XHI, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. CH1CKMAM, MANUFACTURER OJB1 MACHINERY—Of brass, copper, and iron wares, at Hamburg, Germany, recommends himself for the manufacture of steam boilers, Roberts' apparatus, ma-cbiney and apparatus for sugar refineries, breweiies and distilleries, of the most approved constructions ; also for the wholts planning of any factory with drawings and mountings. All orders will be executed with promptness add op the cheapest terms. Inquiries must be made prepaid FOR SALE—RIGHTS IN TWO PATENTS FOR Steam Engine improvements, being a valuable variable cut-off, and practical direct connection of piston rods with crank, effecting great saving in construction and fuel. Interests given to capitalists. Inquire of B. ACKERMANN, 710 Broadway, New York. WELL'S PATENT SINGLE AN BOUBLE CIRCULAR SAW MILLS, with simultaneous and independent hand and self setting head blocks and patent friction feed, universally admitted the best mills % extant for manufacturing lumber. Self-acting shingle and lath machinest jointers, saw mandrels with Well's \ patent seif-adjueting boxes. Saw tables, saw-sets and swages manufactured by H. WELLS & CO., Florence, J Mass.
This article was originally published with the title "Correspondents" in Scientific American 13, 36, 287 (May 1858)