There would be but a limited field for the exercise of taste in the textile industry without the art of dyeing, which is to tissues what the summer's sun is to the landscape, the source of all which delights the eye in light and color. While admiring the splendors of impression and color displayed upon the fabrics of the present day, we should not forget how largely they are due to the intelligence and science of the French statesmen and savans of former generations. The great Colbert, in establishing manufactures in Prance, made improvements in the art of dying the object of special care. He published, in 1672, a set of regulations " for the dyeing of wools and the manufacture of wools of all color," and showed that dyeing was an object deserving public attention from the additional value which it confers upon many of the articles of commerce. " If the manufactories of wool, silk, and thread are to be reckoned among those which contribute most to the support of commerce, dyeing," says Colbert, " which gives them that striking variety of color by which they resemble what is most beautiful in nature, may be considered as the soul of tissues, without which the body could scarcely exist. Wool and silk, the natural color of which rather indicates the rudeness of former ages than the genius and improvement of the present, would be in no great request if the art of dyeing did not furnish attractions which recommend them even to the most barbarous nations. All risible objects are distinguished and recommended by colors but for the purposes of commerce it is not only necessary tha* they should be beautiful, but that they should be good, and that their duration should equal that of the material which they adorn." These ideas bore fruit in the magnificent tapestries of the Gobelins manufactory, and more usefully in the famous black cloths of Sedan, both of which are due to this great statesman. Ths art of dying was also during his time applied to printing cottons. The industry of calico printing was founded in Holland during the 17th century by a native of France. It was planted by a Frenchman in 1690 upon the banks of the Thames, and established about that time by a French refugee at Neufchatel, from whence it was brought back again to the country of its nativity by the celebrated Oberkampf. The regulation of the art of dyeing continued after the time of Colbert to be an object of governmental care in France; and Hellot, Maoquer, and Berthollet, all eminent chemists, were successively appointed to superintend the practice of dyeing and to cultivate the branches of science which had a tendency to promote ths progress of the art. Bach of these chemists left practical treatises upon dyeing, of great value. The work of Berthollet, published in 1791, became the standard book of the age, since it contained not only a detailed account of the practical operations of the art, but theoretical views of the principles upon which it was founded. These works, and that of Chaptal, who while occupying the office of minister of the interior, had become interested in the art, contained nearly all that was valuable respecting the art of dyeing in any language at the close of the last century. The best informed Englishmen of that period, such as Mr. Anderson, author of the " History of Commerce," and Mr. Howe, author of an essay on bleaching, did not hesitate to admit the superiority in "brilliancy of color of the articles of French manufacture of this period, and to attribute it to the fostering care of the government. The Exposition of Paris has called forth a beautiful study on the dyeing and printing of fabrics from M. De Kaeppilin. This treatise, the more elaborate work of M. Schutzenberger, published in 1867, under the auspices of the Industrial Society of Mulhouse, and the admirable report of Dr. Hoffman, president of the Chemical Society of London, published in 1883, furnish ample information as to the progress of the art in this century. A signal step in the advancement of this art was the discovery by the celebrated Vauquelin, in the early part of the present century, of the metal chromium the compounds of which have since had so many industrial applications, especially in the printing of mousselines and calicoes, as in the chromate of lead first prepared for printing cottons by Lassarque in 1819, and the oxide of chromium combined with arseniotis acid to form green, applied by Courez. In 1810, Loffet introduced the process of fixing colors by means of steam to the printing of cashmere shawls, thus dispensing with the immersion of the fabrics in a bath of tincture. During the years 1837, '38, '39, '40, and '45, the beautiful discovery of Loftet received its most remarkable application in the fabrication of mousselines of wool, and wool with warps of cotton, by means of colors fixed by steam. It was this application which gave the vast extension to the manufacture of printed woolen tissues, which constitute at present the most important part of the combed-wool industry of France, and the only branch which has been successfully pursued in this country. The application of steam color* to cotton fabrics was greatly advanced by the discovery of stanate of soda by Mr. Steinsr, which enables the colorist to give to the steam print a solidity and luster in which it was wanting before. Of the modern discoveries in chemistry there is none more brilliant thSn that of the cheap production of ultramarine. which was effected by Guimet in 1828, the right being secured to him by patent. This material, affording a blue color of surpassing intensity and purity, was formerly supplied by levigating the powder of the mineral lapis Xazvli, obtained in small masses from Siberia. Its value in the arts was 125 francs an ounce, more than its weight in gold. The artificial ultramarine is produced by combining the same chemical substances, the soda, silica, sulphur, and' alumina, which are found in the lapis lazuli, and is equal in brilliancy of color to the natural ultramarine. Its cost has been reduced from 6,000 francs to 6 francs the kilogram. The first impressions were made with this color, fixed by albumen upon mousselines delaine, in 1834, and in the richest fabrics of France this beautiful color replaces the duller tints formed by indigo and prussian blue, the latter dye having been fixed upon woolen tissues as a color of impression in 1836. We must not pass over another series of inventions, although they have special relations to the printing of cotton fabrics. For the printing of cotton madder isJtJy far the most important material on account of the perifianency of its dyes. The extensive demand for this material, and the desirableness of obtaining brighter tints, have made it an object of the highest importance to free the coloring principle of the madder root from entraneous matters. T'le French chemical manufacturers have achieved remarkable results in this direction. In 1826, MM. Eobiquet and Collin discovered in the madder root the principle a'izarine, formerly a rose-colored dye, which the English afterward introduced as a commercial article un-the name of pincqffine. In 1828, purpurine, also derived from madder, was indicated by the same chemist as a chemical species, distinct from alizarine. It furnishes a more vivid red than the alizarine, and is now prepared commercially. Since the period last mentioned, the coloring matter of madder has been concentrated in the form known as garancine and flowers of madder. These materials are prepared commercially in France in vast quantities, their use proving greatly advantageous, both in respect to economy and improvement of color. The dying powers of purpurine and alizarine are remarkable, that of purpurine being equal to forty or fifty times the same quantity of madder, and that of alizarine to that of thirty-eight times that of madder. These new substances have ben found valuable in dyeing wool. Wool mordanted with alum and cream of tartar gives, with purpurine, a brilliant crimson red, and mordanted with tartar and a solution of tin gives, with purpurine, a scarlet almost as fine as that from cochineal. (To be concluded next week.) Skate Patents It will interest the lovers of that most graceful and noble exercise, skating, to know that in purchasing their skates they-may take their choice from two hundred and ten kinds, all of them patented within twenty years. Mayne Reid's new magazine, Onward for March, contains some interesting statistics relative to this subject, from whick we take some par agraphs: From the year 1790 to 1849 no skates of any description were patented in the United States. The first skate patent was granted to Barkley & Bontgen, of Newark, N. J., on the 17th of April, 1849—the only one applied for in that year. During the years 1850, '51, '53, and '54, none were sought for, and only one in 1852. In 1855 two patents were taken out, two also in 1856, three in 1857, and one in 1858. After this, skating practice seems to have increased at an accelerated ratio, since in 1859 no less than nineteen new patents were taken out; in 1800, twenty-one; in 1861, twenty-four; in 1862, eleven; in 1863, twenty-three; in 1864, seventeen; in 1865, fifteen; in 1866, eighteen; in 1867, twenty-two, and in 1868, twenty-nine; in all, two hundred and ten ! Even the war does not seem to have brought any blight on this healthful sport. Among the recently patented skates, worth noticing, are the following: George Havell, of Newark, N. J., November 3 1868, succeeded in securing a patent for one as follows: New York club-runner, brass top throughout, one clamp back of heel, clamps on sides of feet. All three clamps worked by a long bar of steel under the sole, and turned at back of the heel by a key. The skate body is bent just in front of the heel so as to be a support to the back fastening. Joseph Lyon, of Newark, N. J., patented May 31, 1864, a stop for skates. Henry Gettey, of Brooklyn, N. Y., patented February 23,1864, a skate with two runners, so arranged as to be close together or an inch apart. E. B. Phillips, of Cambridgeport, Mass., patented February 14,1860, a skate made of one piece of brass, runner included. William Jordan, of Galena, 111., patented April 7,1868, a singular sort called a " stilt skate." M. C. Haight, of Geneva, N. Y., patented April 7,1869, a very light, simple, and cheap skate, of one piece of metal, with straps over the foot. Barney & Berry, of Springfield, Mass., patented June 11,1867, and May 12,1868, the " New York Club," having a toe point for fancy operations—-a very fine strong skate. S. A. DuBois, of Chicago, 111., patented June 30,1868, a toe and heel skate. Scott & Smith, of Boston, Mass., patented December 11,1866, one having three runners, the middle one round, others flat. The " Empire Skate " is an improvement upon the " New York Club," invented by Stone & Co., of Philadelphia, and very favorably received among skaters. We may also notice under this head some skating adjuncts that have been thought worthy of being secured by patent: Frederick R. Willis, of Waltham, Mass., patented March 28, 1865, a skate-sharpener, consisting of two different grades of files, placed like a double T-rail. William P. Patton, of Har-risburg, Pa., patented March 10, 1868, " skate-bucklingtongs," a combination of pincers, gimlet, cleaner, screwdriver forplain screws and for skate screws having heads with two cavities in them. The implement occupies small space, is made of brass, and weighs but an ounce or two. - N. H. Spofford, of Boston, Mass., patented May 29,1860, an ankle supporter, to be attached to any skate, consisting of one bar of metal to be screwed on to the heel part, and which bends (at about the hight of the ankle) forward and backward. The top to be bound to the calf of the limb -with a strap. H. P. Gengembre patented a device for " skating floors,'' November 20,1866, consisting of a metal floor, with pipes from an engine so arranged as to flood it to any depth. J. H. A. Harvey, of Cleveland, Ohio, patented an " improved skating rink," January 28, 1868. From his model we should think it a very nicely arranged affair. It is only a few years since the roost approved, skate was built or fashioned in an entirely different manner, as regards 1 the general position of the foot toward the ice. A noted writer on " British Field Sports " recommends that the skate " be higher at the heel than at the toe," so as to save slipping; whereas, nowadays, it is just the reverse—being about one-quarter of an inch higher at the- forward part of the skate than at the heel. Also, it was quite a curiosity then (say twenty years back) to see a skate " rock" at all; and now there is hardly a boy of ten years but has progressed enough both to use and like a " rocker." If our readers could only take a glance at a few of the skate models, deposited in the Patent Office at Washington, they would see the great changes that have taken place in skate building. Some of the old models (only about fifteen years of &g0) oi what was then the skate, might serve as " scarecrows " o almost any rink in Uncle Sam's dominions. Effects of the Removal of Forests upon Climate An interesting letter was recently read before the Geographical Society of London, which shows the effects upon climate resulting from the clearing away of large tracts of forest. The facts given are of universal interest. The paper was " On the Effects on Climate of Forest Destruction- in Coorg, Southern India," by Dr. Bidie. This district is composed of hills and valleys, which were formerly covered with forests. The lower slopes, however, are now denuded, and the rainfall is found to decrease with the arboreal vegetation. As regards the elevated crests of the Ghauts, which intercept the rain-bearing winds of the Southwest monsoon, they would cause an abundant precipitation whether they were covered with trees or not, but the water supply and fertility of the lower slopes and plains to the East are seriously diminished by the clearing of forest on the hills, and the result is brought about in the following way: The natural forest acts as a check on the too rapid evaporation, and carrying off by streams, of the rainfall on the surface of the land. As the rain descends, it is gradually conveyed by the leaves of trees to the dense undergrowth of shrubs, and carpet of dead. leaves, and below this it encounters a layer of vegetation mold, which absorbs the water like a sponge. By these, aided by the roots of trees, the moisture is transferred to the depths of the earth, and a reservoir of springs is thus found, which keeps up a perennial supply of water to the lower land. But rain falling on the bare surface of cleared lands runs off at once by the nearest water-courses, and none is retained to keep up the flow during the dry season. Beside which, evaporation is so much more abundant from a surface exposed to the rain than from land screened by a clothing of forest, and the flow of surface water tends to sweep away the clothing of soil and render a district utterly barren. There is no doubt that this is one of the main causes, in hilly countries, of drought and floods. In France, for instance, since the mountains of Auvergne and Forey have been so denuded of forests, the Loire has been constantly flooded, occasioning vast destruction of property. The same cause, in Algeria, has caused frequent droughts, and the French government have lately been considering the proposition of some scientific men to replant these districts with trees. Extraction of Odoriferous Principles of Plants by the Use of Glycerin. We are in receipt of inquiries in regard to the methods employed in the extraction of the odoriferous principles of flowers by the use of glycerin. The process is that of simple contact. This substance when pure is devoid of odor and not liable to turn rancid, and is therefore much superiorto oils or fats for the purpose, not excluding the best olive oil. The plan of extracting certain delicate and fugacious odors which are destroyed by ordinary distillation, used to consist in placing flowers between oiled or greased cloths or plates of glass prepared with oil or grease, after which, the essential oils were washed out from the oily matters by means of alcohol, which thus charged with perfume, became an essence or extract. The extraction of odoriferous oils with glycerin is perfumed by introducing the flowers, such as those of the jasmine, hyacinth, narcissus, lilac, syringa, violet, rose, etc., into a vessel filled with glycerin, in which they are allowed to remain for three weeks. At the expiration of this time, the liquid is strained off, and contains the odoriferous principles of the flowers. The glycerin has been converted into a delightfully perfumed extract which may be used as it is, for hair dressing, or it may be dissolved in all proportions in water or alcohol forming various highly perfumed and variously scented liquids or washes. Some of the less volatile essential oils may also be transferred to ether, and from it to alcohol. mm Statistics of Cotton Manufacture. The National Association of Cotton Manufacturers and Planters has just issued a report which contains some highly interesting information. It appears that the number of cotton mills in the Northern State is at present 664, running 6,359,-020 spindles, and consuming annually 385,952,021 pounds of cotton; while there are in the Southern States 86 mills, running 225,063 spindles, and consuming annually 31,415,730 pounds of cotton. In the Northern mills each spindle is made to spin, on an average, sixty pounds of cotton a year, while in the Southern mills each one spins 138 pounds, showing that a coarser quality of goods is manufactured at the South. There are, altogether; nearly 100 fewer mills in operation now than there were in 1860. The total consumption of cotton for manufacturing purposes last year was 450,000,000 pounds, which, at the usual estimate of 400 pounds to a bale, equals 1,125,000 bales, or nearly one half the production of the United States. The consumption in 1868, in Europe and the United States, was 2,094,105,000 pounds, against 1,976,-520,000 pounds in 1858, and 2,284,901,000 pounds in 1859 At the present relative prices of raw cotton and cotton cloth, there is no profit on the manufacture of the latter.195Adulterations of Food. We have alluded to the results of some investigations, recently published in the New York World, regarding the adulterations of current articles of food in the United States. Some of our transatlantic exchanges have alluded to the subject in a mauner calculated to imply that the Yankees are experts in this sort of thing. It would seem, however, that such deception is not by any means confined to this country. A committee composed of a large number of very able men, chemists, physicians, etc., being appointed by the British Parliament to investigate! the subject, report that they cannot avoid the conclusion that adulteration widely prevails, though under circumstances of very various character. " As regards foreign products some arrive in this country in an adulterated condition, while others are adulterated by the English dealer. Other commodities again, the product of this country, are shown to be in an adulterated state when passing into the hands of the dealers, while others undergo adulteration by the dealers themselves. Not only is the public health thus exposed to danger, and pecuniary fraud committed on the whole community, but the public morality is tainted, and the high commercial character of this country seriously lowered, both at home and in the eyes of foreign countries. Though happily very many refuse, under every temptation, to falsify the quality of thoir wares, there are unfortunately large numbers who, though reluctantly practicing deception, yield to the pernicious contagion of example, or to the hard pressure of competition forced upon them by their less scrupulous neighbors." Without enumerating all the adulterations detected by th,e committee, the f ollewing list will show that English ingenuity in the art of cheating is not to be ranked as very inferior to that of other nations : " Some of the leading articles which have been proved to be more or less commonly adulteTSted, are : Arrowroot, adulterated with potato and other starches; bread, with potatoes, plaster of paris, alum, and sulphate of copper; bottled fruits and vegetables, with cartain salts of copper; coffee, with chic-cory, roasted wheat, beans, and mangle wurzel; chiccory, with roasted wheat, carrots, sawdust, and Venetian red; cocoa, with arrowroot, potato flour, sugar, chiccory, and some ferruginous rad earth; cayenne, witli ground rice, mustard husks, etc., colored with red lead; lard, with potato flour, mutton suat, carbonate of soda, and caustic lime; mustard, with wheat flour and tumeric; marmalade, with apples and turnips; porter and stout (though sent out in a pure state from the brewers), with water, sugar, treacle, salt, alum, cocculus indicus, grains of paradise, nux vomica, and sulphuric acid; pickles and preserves, with salts of copper; suuff, with various chromates, red lead, lime and powdered glass; tobacco, with water, sugar, rhubarb, and treacle; vinegar, with water, sugar, and sulphuric acid; jalap, with powdered wood; opium, with poppy capsules, wheat flour, powdered wood, and sand; scammony, with wheat, chalk, resin, and sand; confectionery, with plaster of Paris and other similar ingredients, colored with various pigments of a highly pois-onoua nature; and acid drops, purporting to be compounded of Jargonelle pear, Eibston pippin, lemon, etc., with essential oils, containing prussic acid or other dangerous ingredients." Further investigations, an account of which we omit, seem to indicate that pure articles of diet are rather the exception to the rule among our self-complacent critics. It is impossible in this connection not to recall the lines of Burns. Oil wad some power the giftie gie us To Bee ourselves as itljers see us, It wad frae mony ablunder? ree ns, And f oolisli notion. ri'lie United States Coast Survey.---Interesting Experiments. For some time past, the United States Coast Survey officers, have been engaged in making astronomical observations between Cambridge University and the cities of the West, using the telegraph to aid them in their labors. In order to arrive at the mean time between the Atlantic and the Pacific, the one represented by Boston and the other by San Francisco, the wires of the Western Union Telegraph have been nightly brought into use for nearly a nionth past. The wires were connected with a chronometer at Cambridge in such a manner that the main circuit is broken and instantly closed again at every beat or tick of the time-piece, and the result is that each second of time, as marked by the chronometer at Cambridge, goes forth from the university on the Atlantic coast, and, with almost the speed of light itself, hurries on over the magic wire, passing through intermediate cities, towns, and villages, across rivers, over mountains and along the open country, nntil it finally reaches the recording instrument on the Pacific coast, in all its original fullness of pulsation. Think of it once! The ticks of a clock in Boston are heard and re corded in San Francisco almost in the same instant that they reached the ear of the observer in the first named place! So perfect were the connections and the workings of the wires that, had any one gone into the office of the Western Union Telegraph in this city, at any time during the time when the experiments were going on, he could have heard the ticking of the chronometer at Cambridge, as the signals were rapidly transmitted to the Pacific seaboard. For five minutes the tick! tick ! tick ! goes on, and then all is quiet. Presently San Francisco telegraphs Boston " All right; your second signals came good, and have been recorded for five minutes. Go ahead five minutes more." Again, tick! tick! tick! for five minutes, and then San Francisco says again : " All right, are you ready to take my signals 1" And the answer from Boston is: "Yes, go ahead." " Tick! tick! tick!" says San Francisco for the allotted five minutes, and Boston pays, in his turn: "Allrht!" The signals are perfect, yet the question is not solved. The loss of time in the transmission of the signals between one point and another is to be computed, and the experimenters have the problem of how to measure that time, for solution. This is, however, only a small part of the labor. Another wire is switched on at Boston, a repeater is added, and the question is solved. In a trifle less than sixty seconds, one minute, the signals go to San Francisco and return to Boston, having traveled about six thousand miles. The experiments are now closed, but they have been entirely successful. The route is from Boston through Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Omaha, Cheyenne, Salt Lake City, Virginia City, in Nevada, to San Francisco and return. This triumph of art over what appeared to be insurmountable difficulties has been the greatest yet recorded, inasmuch as space, so to speak, has been totally annihilated. The true difference in the mean time between the two points has not yet be,en fully announced, . m & ' Effects on man of Residence at Great Altitudes. Prof. Robert von Schlagintweit, the celebrated traveler, at /'/ y, ?. ,4'\, I a recent meeting of the Boston Society for Medical Improve- j j ''s'jj *"' ment, made some very interesting remarks upon the effects of \\ f; ':.s f high altitudes upon the human system. We extract from the Xj% *** Bosfon Medical and Surgical Journal a synopsis of his remarks IJ'Jj'" f v hich are oLvalue, as they are based upon personal experience fr '] and observation in the highest regions of Asia, through which ii ! SV'S, Prof, von Schlagintwait has traveled extensively. i; J \. m " There is a hight above which human life is impossible; in \' v!S in a balloon, Mr. Glaisher fainted when 32,000 feet above the f' , '.&A level of the sea; probably no man could live at an elevation a11/''" greater than 34-36,000 feet; this will, however, depend much *? on the state of the atmosphere, the idiosyncrasies of individuals, and the habit of living in high places. The Professor, himself, on first reaching an elevation of 17-18,000 feet, felt great inconvenience and distress, but at another visit was not much affected. People living at a moderate elevation, on going higher, suffer full as much as the unaccustomed traveler. In ' High Asia' the effects of elevation are shown by headache, haemoptysis, dyspnoea, anorexia, muscular debility, ttnd low spirits, all increased at night, and at times every one gasps for air, apparently in vain; moments occur when every one believes that he must inevitably be suffocated. In day time epistaxis may occur, but if the nose is not too much irritated it seldom occurs. He had never seen bleeding from the eyes, lips, or ears. All these symptoms disappear as soon as one begins to descend. In the Andes.it is said, beside these symptoms, are also intense headache, swoons, bleeding from the nosa, lips, gums, and eyelids, especially the tunica conjunctiva. The hight at which these symptoms ccme on ameng the Andes is not nearly so great as in High Asia; in the latter country being not below 16,500 feet, while in the Andes the effect of hight has been repeatedly felt as low as 10,700 feet, lower than anywhere else. No satisfactory explanation of this fact has yet been given. Prof. S. thought it might be owing to the different geological construction, but the existence of volcanoes in the Andes would not wholly account for the difference. In balloons, these symptoms do not come on till a much greater hight is reached, bodily exertion rendering one much more likely to suffer; in a balloon, the passengers keep perfectly still, any exertion, at a great hight.causing intense depression and greatly hightening the pulse. Cold does not increase the intensity of the suffering, but wind decidedly. One could stay for days at hights of 16,500 feet and not suffer during the first portion, but at evening a breeze usually sprung up, rendering every one sick; in the morning the appetite came back and the bad symptoms were gone. The effect of great hights is influenced by the state of the atmosphere (which is always better in the morning than in the evening), the existence of wind, or clouds, or electricity. There is a great decrease in the atmospheric pressure, the barometer at the hight of 22,859 feet showing only 13'3 inches. In High Asia, at a hight of 18,600 or 18,800 feet, the atmospheric pressure is one-half of that at the level of the sea. These symptoms, which all are liable to in great hights, prevent human beings from living there, even if all conditions are at hand for their thriving well. " In none of the pastures in Thibet is the hight greater than 16,320 feet, and they are only used in certain portions of the year. A French author, Paul de Carmoy, has described a described a village in the Peruvian Andes, named Pueblo de Ocoruro, at a hight of 18,454 feet, whose inhabitants spend all the year there, but from his own experience, Prof, von Schlagintweit thinks this impossible; Carmoy's statement rests either on an erroneous observation or on a wrong measurement; he has probably mistaken a transitory settlement, only inhabited for a few days, for a permanent abode. " Dr. Parks said, some years ago he ascended Monte Rosa, and when near the summit, in the midst of a flurry of wind and snow, had an attack of dyspnoea, and other disagreeable feelings, which all passed away on reaching the summit. " Prof, von Schlagintweit said these symptoms were not usually felt on the Alps, which were only on the confines of the elevation at which these symptoms were likely to occur. They might be felt in an exceptional case, in a storm, as in Dr. Parks' experience, or by people of highly nervous temperaments. " Why should this influence show itself at so much lower an elevation among the Andes than in the Alps or elsewhere ? Whole villages live in Asia at the hight of 10,500 feet above the level of the sea. The inhabitants are robust, with well-developed chests; their stature is somewhat less than that of Europeans or Americans, but their strength is enormous, that of the women as well as the men. The diet varies with the race, some living on vegetable, some on animal food alone. The Hindoos live principally on rice; they also make use of an intoxicating liquor made of millet. " Animal traces are found at very great hights; the yak Bos grunniens) at 19,400 feet, wild horse (Kyahg), and several species of wild sheep and ibex at 18,600, but very few birds. " As to the diseases : in Thibet we find goitre but seldom, while it is common in some Himalaya valleys; rheumatism is very common, as is also constipation; smallpox causes fearful ravages in Thibet; no apoplexy; no phthisis, but, on the contrary, consumptives find great relief in these high altitudes. Prof, von Schlagintweit anticipates happy results from the study of the hygiene of high regions." a The Twlg-Girdler. We have been puzzled for a long time to know whatinssct it is that girdles and occasionally amputates the twigs oi various trees in the manner shown in the following engraving. The mystery has at length been solved by one of our correspondents, Mr. Geo. Burnside, of South Pass, 111., detecting the culprit in the very act. Upon * examining two specimens, kindly sent to /'/ b r''"l'11''- US * lat Sent'eman the girding'insect j I'fei""' proves to be one of the rarest of our cap-\\ i''"' 'i''M i ricom' or long-horn beetles (the Onddcres \X *wriii '* cingulatus of Say, color, a, grayish-brown). j f tS-'A * nd now that we have thus been enabled k'"\ i*?j to recognize the species, we find that, so U/ivcf, far as regards the girding of hickory Wit \ ,si twigs by this beetle, the discovery was \jl, Jjs made and published more than thirty p (2fe years ago by Prof. Haldeman. Possibly 4ii';'i''iPi e amPutation of pear twigs, and es-P'(t pecially of persimmon twigs, which w have ourselves notices noticed to be o very common in South Illinois, in consequence of such girding, may be effected by a distinct species; but, as Mr. Burn-side says, that he discovered the very same insect, which he had seen actually girdling hickory twigs " under very suspicious circumstances" upon a pear tree, the probability is that it is the same species that operates upon all these three trees. The twig-girdler, according to Prof. Haldeman, " may be seen in Pennsylvania during the last two weeks in August and the first week in September, feeding upon the bark of ths tender branches of the young hickories. Both sexes are rather rare, particularly the male, which is rather smaller than the female, but with longer antennae. The female makes perforations, h, in the branches of the tree upon which she lives, which are from half-inch to a quarter of an inch thick, in which she deposits her eggs (one of which is represented of the natural size at e). She then proceeds to gnaw a groove, of about a tenth of an inch wide and deep, around the branch and below the place where the eggs are deposited, so that the exterior portion dies, and the larva feeds upon the dead wood."—American Entomologists. ' m p m Seventeen and Thirteen Year Locusts. There is probably no one American insect more intimately connected with the history of the United States, and of which more has been written, than the 17-year cicada. It is scarcely necessary to tell Americans that, as the name implies, this insect generally requires seventeen years to undergo its transformations; remaining, with the exception of about three months, the whole of this time under ground. There is not a parallel case, that we know of, within the whole range of natural history; but though so much has been written about this cicada, yet some of the most interesting facts relative to its history were unknown till the present year. We have discovered that beside the 17-year broods, the appearance of one of which was recorded as long ago as 1023, there are also 13-year broods; and that, though both sometimes occur in the same States, yet in general terms, the 17, year broods may be said to belong to the Northern, and the 13-year broods to the Southern States. It so happened that one of the largest 17-year broods, together with one of the largest 13-year broods, appeared simultaneously in the Bunir mer of 1868. Such an event, so far as regards these two par ticular broods, has not taken place since the year 1647, nor will it take place again till the year 2089. There are absolutely no perceptible specific difference between the 17-year and the 13-year broods, ether than in ths time of maturing. The season of their appearance and disappearance differs somewhat with the latitude, though not so materially as on might suppose. According to the records, they appeared fhe past season, earlier in the South than in the North; but the last half of May can be set down as the period during which they emerge from the ground, in any part of the country, while they generally leave by the 4th of July. As is the case with a great many other insects, the males make their appearance several days before the females, and also disap* pear sooner. Hence, in the latter part of the cicada seascn, though the woods are still full of females, the song of but I very few males will be heard. Their natural history and transformations have been sufficiently described -fn the standard works of both Harris and Fitch, and we shall simply mention a few facts not recorded by them. Mr. S. S. Rathvon, of Lancaster, Pa., who has himself witnessed four of their periodical visits, at intervals of seventeen years, has communicated to us the following very ingenious provision, which the pupa made the past season, in loealities that were low or flat, and in which the drainage was imper feet. He says: " We had a series of rains here atwut the time of their first appearance, and in such places, and under196such circumstances, the pupas would continue their galleries from four to six inches above ground (a, full view, b, sectional view), leaving an orifice, e, of egress even with the surface. In the upper end of these chambers the pupas, c, would be found awaiting their approaching time of change. They would then back down to below the level of the earth, as at d, and issuing forth from the orifice, would attach themselves to the first object at hand, and undergo their transformations in the same manner." Mr. Rathvon kindly furnished us with one of these elevated chambers, from which the above drawings were taken. It measured about four inches in length, with a diameter on the inside of five-eighths of an inch, and on the outside of about one and a quarter inches. It was slightly bent at the top and sufficiently hard to carry through the mail without breaking. It bore a great resemblance to the tube of the mason bee, but the inside was less smooth and covered with the imprints of the spines with -which the fore legs of the builder are armed. In a field that was being plowed, about the time of their ascent, we found that single, straight, or bent chambers were the most common, though there were sometimes several branching near the surface from a main chamber below, each of the branches containing pupa. The same observations have been made by other parties. When ready to transform they invariably attach themselves to some object, and, after the fly has evolved, the pupa skin is left still adhering. The operation of emerging from the pupa most generally takes place between the hours of 6 and 9 P. M.; and ten minutes after the pupa skin bursts on the back, the cicada will have entirely freed itself from it. Immediately after leaving the pupa skin, the body is soft and white, with the exception of a black patch on the prothorax. The wings are developed in less than an hour, but the natural colors of the body are not acquired till several hours have elapsed. These recently developed cicadas are somewhat dull for a day or so after transforming/but soon become more active, both in flight and song, as their muscles harden.' For those who are not informed of the fact,,we will state that the males alone are capable of " singing,'1 and that they are true ventriloquists, their rattling noise being produced by a system of muscles in the lower part of the body, which'work on drums under the wings.. : Upon leaving the ground to transform, the pupas are attacked by different quadrupeds, by birds, by cannibal insects, such as ground-bsetles, dragon-flies, soldier-bugs, etc.; while hogs and poultry of all kinds greedily feast upon them. In the perfect fly state they are attacked by at least one insect parasite; f or dipterous maggots may occasionally be found in their bodies. In this state they are also often attacked by a peculiar fungus. One ot our correspondents, Dr. W. D. Hart-man, of Westchester, Pa., speaking of the occurrence of this fungus in 1851, says: " The posterior part of the abdomen, in a large number of male locusts, was filled by a greenish fungus. * * * The abdomen of the infected males was unusually inflated, dry, and brittle, and totally dead while the insect was yet flying about. Upon breaking off the hind part of the abdomen, the dust-like spores would fly as from a small puff-ball." The injury to fruit trees, which the female causes by her punctures, is often quite serious. This is especially the case in a young orchard or in a nursery. When the wind is high the cicadas may, with its aid, be driven to some extent, but without the aid of the wind they cannot be driven at all; as when you start them they are just as likely to fly behind as before you. Indeed, when they are once in the fly state, and as numerous as we have seen them the past season, we are obliged to confess, after experiments involving about $200, that there is no available way of preventing their ruinous work. While in their feeble and helpless condition, however, as they leave the ground, they can be destroyed with but little trouble. In the year 1869, and at intervals of seventeen years thereafter, they will probably appear in the valley of the Connecticut river. According to Dr. Asa Fitch, they appeared there in 1818 and 1835; although, strange to say, there seems to be no record of their having appeared there in 1852. Hence, this may be considered as a somewhat problematical brood. In the year 1870, and at intervals of seventeen years thereafter, they will, in all probability, appear in what is known as the " Kreitz Creek Valley " in York county, Pa. This brood appears to be quite local. In the year 1871, and at intervals of seventeen years thereafter, they will in all probability appear around the head of Lake Michigan, extending as far east as the middle of the State of Michigan, and west an unknown distance into Iowa. Also in Walworth county and other portions of southern Wisconsin, and southward into Illinois. They will also appear in tha same years in the southeast by eastern part of Lancaster county, Pa., in what is called the " Pequaa Valley," having appeared there in vast numbers in 1854.—American Entomologist.
This article was originally published with the title "Dyeing in France and Contributions of Modern Science to the Art" in Scientific American 20, 13, 194-196 (March 1869)