A Healthy Mind in a Healthy Body.—How beneficent is the scheme in which joy begets health, and health promotes joy. Good neiVs will give a good digestion. The sight of land has cured the scurvy in sailors. And so the head and stomach act and re-act upon each other; the head being king, the stomach a loyal and ever-grateful subject, that bounteously returns all good favors. The stomach that is well served produces a healthy body, in which the healthy mind dwells at ease, and is ever fully alive to all honorable and holy pleasures. On the body in perfect health, the mind has perfect control. Then surely the first care of every rational being should be to put all in order in the minds tenement, since the art of attaining high health is that of reaching sound morals and elevated thoughts. / Radiation of Heat from the Moon. -»The Earl of Rosse is making a series of experiments by means of a thermo-pile of four elements and a 3-foot telescope, to determine, if possible, what proportion of the moons heat consists of : 1. That coming from the interior of the moon, which will not vary with the phase; 2. That which falls from the sun on the moons surface, and is at once reflected regularly and irregularly ; 3. That which falling from the sun on the moons surface is absorbed, raises the temperature of the moons surface, and is afterwards radiated as heat of low refrangibility. The chief result arrived at up to the present moment is, that (the radiating power of the moon being taken as equal to lampblack, and the earths atmosphere supposed not to affect the result) a deviation of 90 for full moon appears to indicate an elevation of temperature =500 Fah. The relative amount of solar and lunar radiation was found=89819 : 1. Persine. After taking food, a fluid, called »gastric juice,» flows into the stomach. This liquid contains an active principle which chemical philosophers term pepsine. This body possesses a remarkable property, namely, that of converting all those substances which are known as food irom the solid to the .fluid stats ; a condition clearly necessary for its assimilation or di New Lime Light without Oxygen.A brilliant and steady light has been obtained by the Messrs. Darker from a mixture of common gas and atmospheric air, the latter of which contains more than a fifth part of oxygen. The air and gas are either mixed as in the Bourbouze lamp, or are emitted singly, as in some forms of the oxy-hydrogen burner: Instead, however, of the intense heat thus obtained, being employed to raise to a white heat a platina gauze cap, as proposed two years ago by M. Bourbouze, M»ssrs. Darker cause the flame to impinge upon lime or magnesia, either singly or in combination with asbestos, and thus obtain a light of great purity and intensity. The lime light has thus been got without the trouble and expense attendant upon the employment of pure oxygen. A Bronzing process, applicable to porcelain, stoneware, and composition, picture, and looking-glass frames is.performed as follows : The articles are first done over with a thin solution of water-glass by the aid of a soft brush. Bronze powder is then dusted on, and any excess not adherent Is knocked off by a few gentle taps. The article is next heated, to dry the silicate, and the bronze becomes firmly attached. Probably, in the case of porcelain, biscuit, or stoneware, some chemical union of the silicate will take place, but in other cases the water-glass will only tend to make the bronze powderadhere to the surface. After the heating. the bronze may be polished or burnished with agate tools. Average Duty of Cornish Engines An estimate of the average duty of this class of engines, based on observations made upon eighteen engines during one month, shows the lollowing results : They have consumed 1,377 tuns of coal, and lifted 102 million tuns of water 10 fathoms high. The average duty of the whole is, therefore, 50,100,000 pounds, lifted one foot high, by the consumption of 112 pounds of coal. A Cure for SOMNAMBULISM.Professor Pellizzari, of Florence, has hit upon a cure for somnambulism. It simply consists in winding once or twice round ones leg, on going to bed, a thin flexible copper wire, long enough to reach the floor. Eighteen somnambulists, trtaten in this way, have been either permanently or temporarily cured. The Gasetta Medica, of Venice, which reports the fact, says that copper wire is known to dissipate magnetic somnambulism, and that this circumstance led the professor to have recourse to this strange remedy. Two spirited Frenchmen, Messieurs Tissander and de Fou-vielle, have undertaken the daring enterprise of reachingtha north pole in a balloon. The mach ine in which the bold adventurers are about to embark on their perilous journey, and which is appropriately named » 1,e Pole Nord.,» is now being completed in the Champ de Mars, which the government have placed at their disposal for the purpose. The car, a marvel, it is said, of strength and lightness, is constructed to carry ten passengers, 4,000 lbs. of ballast, and provisions for a month. The Geeneb Boiler.In answer to some inquiries in relation to the heating surfaces of the. two boilers, alluded to in our last issue under the above title, we would say that the heating surface of the stationary boiler tested is 144 square feet, and that of the marine boiler at the offices of the New York and Erie Railroad is 400 square feet. Mr. Lockwoode, in referring to his article on the Manu facture of Plate Glass, page 199, current volume, wishes us to say that the grinding machines of the Birmingham Works turn out 12,000 feet of glass, and that the Lenox Company commenced their operation. at Cheshire, Mass. 1869 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. Improved Machine Cor Cutting Staves. Two classes of machines have been employed for cutting staves ; namely, those which operate 1li.IPm the principle of cleavage the wood being first steamed, and those which saw out the stave with curved faces. Of the latter class, the barrel-saw machines have been principally employed notwithstanding there are radical defects in the operation, well known to those who use them; one of the principal faults being, that in obstinate descriptions of wood, these saws will become more or less cramped out of their circular form, bind, and otherwise vex the operator, as well as perform the work imperfectly. The improved machine 1 herewith illustrated, may be used advantageously for cutting staves in all kinds of wood, hard and soft , aad for all sizes of staves within ordinary requirements; and it could also be constructed to cut staves for the largest brew-era and dyers tanks, by sufficient -ly enlarging its dimensions, a great advantage over machlnes employing barrel saws. which cannot be employed for cutting staves of great length In short it is one of the most substantia and best constructed machmes for this work we have ever met with. Its operation will be readily understood by reference to the engraving in connection with the following explanations: A is the main driving pulley keyed to a shaft which cames two crank and # fly wheels, B, through which power is cn veyed to the other working parts» of the machines, of which there may be one on each side f the wood frame-work, but only one of which is shown in the engrain g, c is the connecting rod or pitman wlndi drives the saw, D. This saw is concave on the side shown 11 the engravmg, the curvature being that desired for the staves. This form giveS it great rigidity, so that no saw gate or stretching apparatus is required. Guides, U, attached to the frame work are provhled to steady the saw when working 11 obstinate lundgs of timber, and the saw may be removed for fil11g and settmg by simply taking out the key which connects it with the piti man. Despensing with the gate renders the motion of the saw very light and a perfectly parallel motion is secured through guides not shown in the engraving, fastened to tile intorioi-of the frame work. The bolt. E, is laid on the metallic carriage, F , which slides on ways formed on the oscillating frame K The frame, K, oscillates on the centers, J, by whi ch the bolt; is brought up toward the edge of the saw in an arc of a circle corresponding accurately to the concavity of the saw, This motion is imparted to the oscillating frame by the oper ator who grasps with his left hand the handle, M, while the bolt is fed by an apparatus operated by the handle, N, and yet to be described. The bolt is firmly held by spurs, G, one on each side of the metallic carriage, F, one of which is movaM^ and is driven home by the pivoted lever, H, and held there by the toothed arc I, which engages with the lever, I-I, white the bolt is being sawe(L The toothed arc, I, is provided with a suitable handle for raising it when it is desired to release the lever, H, and through it the movable spur, G. We will now endeavor to make plain the means by which the feeding is accomplished. The prime motion by which this is attained is imparted by the right hand of the operator throuo-h the lever, N. When this is moved toward the saw, the bent paWls or hooks, 0, attached to a common rock shaft with the lever, N, and which, while each stave is be11g (ni^ engage with the racks, L, preventing any motion of the metallic carriage toward the saw, are disengaged from the racks, L, at the same time that the upper and longer pawls, S, are d rawn toward the saw and take in another tooth on the racks. The pawls, P, which play loosely on the rck shaft smd engage with the opposite side of the same tooth with which 0 engages and prevents any motion of the carriage from the saw, are also lifted by means of an angular projection shown at E, which engages with the back side of O, as shwn 11 the engraving. The motion of the lever, N, being then reversed the pawls, S, engage with the tooth taken 11 by the former motion and the pivots which connect them with the bent pawls or hooks, 0, become fulcrums of the M, through which the carriage is forced along toward the saw until the bent pawls or hooks, 0, again engage with the rack^ 1^ pre-vent11g all further motion toward the saw, while at the same time the pawls, P, also engage with the rack as shown, pr<3-venting all backward movement. These pawls are so adJ11sted that the single forward and backward movement of the tere^ M, described, feeds the bolt onward exactly the thicJmess f one stave; these movements being made at th<3 same time, A cord or strap, T, attached to the carriage, F, and running over the roller shown in the engraving, thence over a pulley attached.to the under side of the carriage, F, thence through a hole in the floor, has a weight attached which serves both as a counterpoise to the oscillating frame, K, and also acts to throw the carriage to the front when the pawls are raised. This machine has been in practical use three years, and the inventor informs us that no repairs have been found necessary during that time. He further states that a machine carrying two saws, with the attendance of two men will cut on the average seven thousand staves per day, these staves being sufficiently smooth and uniform, to be, after jointing, iminedi- stakes can be set in a line drawn at any desired angle to th e first line, by simply turning the level upon a central pivot provided for that purpose, the required number of degrees as indicated on the graduated table. The level is of ample length to secure accuracy in sighting, and the small aperture in the sight also enables the operator to run a line with great certainty. Being made of iron, it is not liable to warp or spring. The level may be lifted off the table and the adjustment made by screws provided for that purpose. Milled thumb-nuts and screws are also provided to adjust the table to level, and a neat tripod sustains the working parts of the instrument when in use. Patented June 23, 1868. Address for further information the Warwick Tool Company,Middle-town, Conn. BISHOPS STAVE-CUTTING MACHINE. ately set up into casks. Patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, March 24,1868, by W. R. and O. D. Bishop. Orders for State rights, county rights, and machines, may be addressed to George M. Beach, Mil waukee, Wis., agent for the sale of this improvement.
This article was originally published with the title "Editorial Summary" in Scientific American 21, 15, 231-232 (October 1869)