(Concluded from page 51) MANUFACTURES. Ventilating and Guard Car—J. P. Duffey, Philadelphia.—The inventor intends this car to act not only as a reservoir for air, hut also to receive the hrunt of a collision, and in case of such an accident to arrest the speed of the train hy a self-acting hrake. The ventilation apparatus is rather elaborate, and occupies the most ot the inside ol the car. It consists of four upright pipes with apertures at the under si4e of the car, to allow the admission of the air, which, in that locality, is more free from smoke than the air of the upper region. These tubes terminate at the top of the car in a parallelogram of other pipes, whence the air is drawn to supply the passenger cars. This complex arrangement is adopted, we presume, to filter the air from dust, and perhaps to warm it in winter, but, irom want of explanation, this is only conjectural on our part. The guard arrangement consists ot a stout buffer-board which is kept extended from the front of the car by two rows of cylindrical rubber springs. On the spring-board being forced in by a collision, it acts on a stout iron bar which, by a suitable arrangement, forces down on each side a strong plank, which thus acts as a brake on the periphery ol the wheel. . Electro-Magnetic Brake—J. C. Symmes, Troy, N. T.—The power derived from the galvanic battery has been applied, in this instance, to a new use. A couple of the ordinary wooden segments, fixed as used for brakes, are attached by joints, one near each side of the wheel; on the other end of the brake is an iron stud, round which is coiled a copper wire, in the manner now so well known as used for electro-magnets. If a galvanic battery, to which the copper wire is led, be placed near the engineer or other responsible person, on his completing the circuit which is done iji a second, the iron stud will become magnetic and be attracted to the tire of the wheel, and thus force the wooden segment down in the ordinary manner. Colburn's Combination Safety-Brake—This apparatus can be adjusted either by the brake-man, or is self-acting. Its chief utility lies in the fact that it enables the depot-master to set it in action to retard a train when, from any cause, the signal may be unheeded or not given. The brake itself, and its adjusting levers, resemble closely the ordinary arrangement, the chief difference lies in the use of a strong forked lever, which stands in front of the car and projects beyond the roof. This lever moves the brake by being pulled to or from, the two arms or prongs which lorm the fork being bent at an angle to each other. When it is required to apply the brake, it is only necessary topull the lever, in which consists the difficulty. This is effected by having a bridge across the track, from either side of which is suspended an iron stop working on hinges or joints, so that it moves upwards to the bridge, but is unyielding to any thing that attempts to force it forwards. On being let down from the bridge it strikes the forked lever, and forcing it to yield, by means of the depression of the latter, the brakes are pressed against the wheels. Mortising and Boring Machine—B. H. Otis, Binghampton, N. Y.—Trie above is a machine adapted for all the slotting and drilling operations required in wood-work; the necessary apparatus for boring is quite distinct from that for mortising so that although there are two spindles, c, the machine is much more simple than would be possible otherwise, and requires no further adjustment for boring after having been used lor the other operation. The frame resembles the usual form ol a machinist's drilling machine, having two uprights, which, however, are of hard wood. In front are two iron spindles, which slide up and down in guides, and which have each a socket, —one for a chisel and the other for an auger or other boring tool. The table on which the plank rests can be raised or lowered as it slides in a longitudinal groove cut in the framing. The spindles are held up by chains connected to strong springs, one for each spindle, which are at the top of the frame. To perform the operation ol slotting, the workman having adjusted the work, by fixing the table and bringing the spindle over the part to be cut, presses his foot on a lever, which causes an iron frame, working on pivots and connected by a rod to the spindle, to be drawn forward. It is thus thrown into contact with a crank motion, which, in each of its revolutions, depresses the frame and consequently the spindle and chisel. As the crank, in its revolution, passes on and ceases its action on the frame, the spring at the top draws the spindle up, and thus a rapid succession of alternating longitudinal movements is maintained. We should mention that the depth of the mortise is regulated by the pressure of the foot. For boring it is only necessary to throw the belt on the fast pulley, "when a rotating motion is given to the spindle. Self-Heating Iron—By Talliferro, Cum-mings Bliss, of New York City.—This useful little invention, in principle, resembles the Box-iron, with the exception that no iron-heater is placed inside the outer case, that purpose being supplied by charcoal. It is, in fact, a small stove, having at one end a door to supply fuel, and at th8 other a chimney to let off any vapor or smoke. A wooden handle is attached in the usual manner. Although apparently cumbrous it is not heavier than the common sad-iron, the underside being, however, of sufficient thickness to give solidity and weight. Gold-Beating Machine—W. Vine, Hartford, Conn.—This machine is intended to supersede the manual method hitherto pursued for beating gold into thin leaves. We believe that Mr. Vine had a machine of this kind at the World's Fair, in London, where it had a competitor from France. In principle it is very similar to the tilt hammer, only on a smaller scale. A hammer of 10 lbs. weight (although sometimes one of 25 lbs. weight is used) is fixed to a long wooden shaft, which is lifted up in the usual manner. About 800 leaves of gold, each measuring a square inch, are placed in a package with gold-beater's skin between each piece. This mode of packing is, however, similar; to-ttce method of the operative gold-beater. The gold leaf is then beaten out to the dimension of five times its original superficies. It is almost needless tp add, that the intervening skins, when the package is made, are of the size to which the gold is to be brought. The gold is shifted along the iron surface bed, so as to receive each successive stroke of the hammer in a different part. This is effected by means of an iron rod extending from the driving gear, and moving the package of gold in a suitable manner. Culindron Piano—Speer Marx, Aquacka-nock, N. J.—The novelty of this instrument consists in the form of the sounding board and the consequent arrangement of the strings, c. In order to obtain a larger surface for sound than would otherwise be possible, the sound board is shaped cylindricaUy, forming an upright pillar, with the strings keyed on the exterior. There is, accordingly, a great difference in the arrangement from that of the ordinary piano, as the strings, c, are placed in a vertical instead ol a horizontal position. But the chief improvement consists in the sounding-board, which,from its peculiar shape, presents many advantages of tone as well as of larger surface. There is a pedal attachment for piano and forte in the usual manner, which is connected with thetop of the cylinder. Euterpean Piano—McDonald, Bros., New York.—The above-named piano is so called to distinguish it from the now well-known JEo-lian, from which it somewhat differs in its mechanical arrangement. It should be understood that the Euterpean is intended to furnish a flute accompaniment, instead of the organ, and it is, in obtaining this desideratum, that the merit of the invention consists; for this purpose pipes are employed to give the flute sound, with stops projecting from the frame-work, which are drawn in and out according as the flute accompaniment is required or not. The arrangement of the instrument is such that piano and flute can be played together, or either separately. In addition to the pedal attachment, which is common several other pianos, there is an apparatus to be worked by hand for blowing, like that of an organ, fixed to one end, which can be used when required, instead of the pedal movement. New Compact Gear—Dibben Bollman, New York.—This a new compact gear lor increasing or diminishing speed, and is one of the most curious inventions at the Fair; how far it is practicable, on a large scale, remains to be proved, but it certainly evinces great ingenuity and skill. It consists of an arrangement of cog-wheels, and the main advantage claimed over the system now in use, is the capability which this new plan imparts of varying the speed of shafting, Whilst only a pair ot geared wheels is used for all the different speeds required. The inventors have three models on exhibition, each showing a different application of the principle : one is applied to a horse-power, another is for increasing the speed of a propeller, and the third is for an application to water wheels. A few words will explain the invention as adapted to the latter use, the motion here, however, is compound, two small wheels being employed, we should presume to reduce the dimensions to a commodious size. On the main shaft is fixed a wheel, which gears into another of the same size, both resembling crown wheels, although the shape of the teeth is somewhat different. Around the rim ot the driven wheel is another larger one, of the same description, and in fact it is all one casting; this last-named wheel gears into another fixed one of the same diameter. But now follows the main departure from the old routine: the shaft which carries the driven wheels, instead of being in line and having its further extremity to revolve in a fixed bearing, is thrown at that extremity out of line, and is attached at that end to the face of a wheel at some distance from the centre on which the wheel rotates, in short it is a crank motion with the shaft acting as a connecting rod. The consequence is, as the shaft is forced round by the cog-wheel, a species of rocking motion is given to the crown-wheel on the shaft, so that the teeth are alternately thtown in and out of gear, when the teeth on one side are liberated those on the other are thrown into gear. Such is a general account of the plan, the inventors, according to circumstances, using a universal joint, c, as may be required, to allow of the peculiar motion. They say, in their statement, that they can vary the speed as many times as the wheel has teeth, without changing the pair of wheels. Another advantage is, that the axis of the driving shaft is in a line with the shafting that is to be driven. Central-lift Self-acting Stone Saw—J. T. Bruen, Hastings, N. Y.—Some of our readers may not know that the saws used for cutting marble and stone are merely strips of iron, several of which are fixed in a frame at distances, according to the thickness of the slabs into which the block of stone is to be sawn. A plentiful supply of fine sharp sand and water is let into the slit which is made by the saw, and in reality it is these hard particles of sand which act as the cutting agent. Now, the mode by which the sand is supplied, is of more consequence than may be at first apparent, should it get between the sides of the saw and the stone, the smooth surface of the latter would be considerably impaired to say nothing of the great and useless wear of the saw. To overcome this difficulty the inventor has chosen the central-lift, as the sand and water are thereby better precipitated beneath the saw; and, moreover, the sand being by this method first rolled in one direction, and then rolled back again to the centre, a fresh jutting edge is presented by its particles. Eye Cups—J. Ball, New York.—This indention consists of a wooden cup just large snough to enclose the eye with an india-rub-jer ball at the end, the object being to restore ;he rotundity of the cornea of the eye when ihe sight has become impaired. In order to iffect this purpose, the india-rubber ball is pressed by the hand and thus partially ex-lausted of the air inside, on releasing the hold, r, rather, diminishing the pressure, the india-?ubber, by reason of its natuial elasticity, re-;urns to its former shape, and in so doing cor-ects the defect which it is intended to reme-ly. Locomotive Lamps—Alcott Brothers, Ro-lester, N. Y.—A pair of these lamps are sta- tioned one on each side of the entrance into the Rotunda, and are conspicuous objects from the brilliancy ot the reflectors; we can form but a slight estimate of what this brilliancy must be when they are lighted up, from the appearance that they now present. It must be blinding to any object in front for a very, very long distance. The form is the same as that in general use, namely, a parabola. Cow-Lifter for Railways—C. Darling, Uti-ca, N. Y.—A large circular metal plate is placed in front of the car, close to the track and is made to revolve horizontally by the axle, the edge is bevelled so that any obstruction— a cow, for example—will slide on to the plate, and, by the centrifugal motion, be thrown to one side. Paddle Wheel for Steam Vessels.—In this wheel, the paddle-boards or floats are made to slide along the arms of the wheel from the periphery towards the centre so as to remove them from the water when their presence would be an obstacle to the progress of the wheel. We need not describe how this is effected, as every one will understand that it is done by rods working in a suitably curved frame. The idea is good, but how far advisable in practice remains to be proved. The usual objection of rods and joint pins being broken and lost, applies to this paddle as to all others, in which it is sought to vary the position of the floats. Marbleizing Metal—Silas C. Herring, New York.—Under the abovetitle are exhibited specimens of metal to imitate every description of marble, scagliola, stone, c, the object being to introduce metal for the more ornamented parts of house-building, such as mantels, columns, c, and also in the way of furniture, as tops of tables, bureaux, c The advantages offered by its use over marble are greater cheapness and durability and likewise its capability of resisting a greater degree of heat, and because neither acids nor oils have any injarious effects upon it. These specimens exhibited are beautifully executed, and so per-fet is the imitation that it is only by examining that the difference Irom marble is known. We have no doubt that this article is destined to supersede the use of marble to a great extent, in decorating the interior of buildings. CLOSE OP THE FAIR. The Fair of the American Institute closed on Friday the 29th ult., and has been very successful in a pecuniary sense; the receipts for admission having amounted to about $25,-000, it may easily be calculated from this how large a number of visitors attended. The list of premiums was very extensive and comprised a large number of exhibitors; below will be found the names of those to whom . the gold medals were given with the descriptions of articles for which the prizes were awarded. The Ray premium was not decided upon, so that we mustdefer any remarks upon the subject until next week. Roshore Wood, N. Y. Gold and Silver Ware. C. P. Caldwell, N. Y., case of Whips. , F. Skinner Co., N. Y., Black Cassimere. Millville Manulacturing Co., Fancy Cassimere. Evans Legrave, Blackstone, Mass., Black Satinett. Ballard Vale Co., Andover, Mass., Silk Warp Flannel. C. A. Stevens, Ware, Mass, White Flannel. Dexter Manufacturing Co., Pleasant Valley, Beaver Cloth. Grenville Co., Grenville, Conn., 2nd best Felt Beaver cloth. C. L. Harding, Oxford, Mass., Doe-Skin Cassimere. Mystic Co., Mystic, Mass, Colored Merino. Rochdale Mills, Rochester, N. Y., Woolen Blankets. Salisbury Manufacturing Co., Silk Warp Tweed. Robert Reinne, Lodi, N. Y., Printed LawnsJ A. N. W. Sprague, Providence, R. I., Madder Prints. NevyrYork Mills, Utica, N. Y., Pantaloon Stuffs. P. Allen Son, Providence, Prints. B. Shaw, New York, case Boots, Gaiters, Sec. M.Nichols, Workmanship on Gaiter Boots.; 59 S. N. Perkins, Auburn, N, Y., Patent Coats. Troy Carpet Mills, best Carpets. Scwochkard, Williamsburgh, Castings. A. Lecompte, Staten Island, Bronze Statues. Cornelius Co., Philadelphia, Lamps and Chandeliers. C. C. Wright, N. Y., superior Dies for Medals. H. N. Crawford, Philadelphia, Calf-Skins. J. M. Sanderson, best Truss. M. J. Hubbard, Rochester, Model of Self-Adjusting, Short-Turning, Carriage-Gearing. C. L. Boynton, Blank Books. S. Walker Sons, Bookbinding. W. L. Thompson, Binders' Stamps. Ambler Avery, Dental Mechanism. J. Brodie, White Knameled Satin Cloak. M. Bell, Velvet Cloak. A. Manfer Co., Mass., Dress Sword. Allen Thurston, Worcester, Mass., Fire Arms. Hale Co., Enamelling on Glass. A. H. Ritchie, N. Y., Engraving on Steel. A. W. Overbaugh, Engraving on Gold. A. Phillips, work in Hanging Papers. S. C. Herring, Enameled Mantels. T. H. Gillies, Spring Chairs. Laffin, Brothers, Herkimer, N. Y., Cream Laid Paper. Steven Parish, N. Y., Copying Presses. J. Gurney, Daguerreotypes. W. N. Jackson Sons, Grates. W. E. F. Fitch, New Haven, Locks and Bits. Jas. Prentice, Mathematical Instruments. Charles Copley, Brooklyn, Gloves. Thomas Hemingway, Lexington, Ky., bale of Hemp. Brooklyn Flint Glass Co., Plain and Fancy Glass. Haughwout Daily, Painting and Enamelling on Glass. Elias Cartlidge Co., Green Point, American Porcelain. J. H. Butterworth Co.,Dover, N. J., Bank Locks. D. Culver, Hot Air Furnace. Hamilton Woolen Co., Printed De Laines. Jos. P. Pirsson, New York, Double Vacuum Steam Condenser. Howes Phillips, Newark, N. J., 25 horsepower Steam Engine. Wm. Vine, Jr., Hartford, Conn., Gold-beating Machine. S. T. McDougal, N. Y., Platform Scale, Improved Weights. Blake Johnson, Waterbury, Conn., Cast-Steel Geared Rollers. H. H. Green, N. Y., Type-Casting Machine. J. W. Cochran, Williamsburgh, Quartz Crusher. Sloan Leggatt, N. Y., Regulator for Water in a Steam Boiler. Joseph Pine, N. Y., Running-gear to Fire Engines. A. Davis, Dove-tailing Machine. G. P. Gordon, N. Y., Card Press. D. Brundred, Son Co., Paterson, N. J., Cotton Throstle. A. Kreisher, N. Y., Fire Brick. J. W. McAdams, Boston, Paging Machine. L. Alexander, N. Y., Submarine Boat. Chas, Wilson, Springfield, Mass., Stone Dressing Machine. Albert Eames, Stone Polishing Machine'. John Stokell, Jr., best work on an Eight-Day Clock. Allen, Fowler, Co., Mass., Self-Cocking Pistols, c. J. C. Wolfe, Newark, Top Wagon. Smith Sons, East Brooklyn, Wagon without Top. W. F. Ketchutn, Buffala, N. Y., Mowing and Reaping Machine. Morratz Suly, New York, second best Casting. H. N. Dox Livingston, Nelson Co., Virginia excellent specimen ot Sa xony Wool. A. B. Allen Co., Agricultural Implements. Louget and Griffin, New York, Agricultural Implements. Pierce Valentine, 122 Water street, superior safe. A. C. Powell, Syracuse, N. Y.,for a machine or cutting bolts. O. R. Hames, Ithaca, N. Y., Calendar Clock, i W. Colgate, best Family Soap.
Fair of the American Institute
This article was originally published with the title "Fair of the American Institute" in Scientific American 8, 8, 58-59 (November 1852)