287 B.C. - 212 B.C.
Often considered the greatest ancient mathematician, he is credited with discovering several geometric principles, including the volume and surface area of a sphere and the approximate value of pi.

In a quirky text called The Sand-Reckoner, Archimedes proved that the amount of sand in the world is not infinite, counter to prevailing wisdom.

The author of more than 30 classic plays and 100 sonnets, he pioneered new literary forms, helped to standardize grammar, and invented dozens of words and sayings.

Few records exist of Shakespeare's “Lost Years,” the period between when his wife gave birth to twins and when he emerged in the London theater scene.

He described laws of gravity and motion and developed theories of color, cooling and the speed of sound. He also invented differential and integral calculus, along with Leibniz.
Newton wrote a 300,000-word interpretation of The Book of Revelation.

The famous painter also conceptualized inventions that were only developed centuries later, including concentrated solar power, the helicopter and the tank. This quintessential “Renaissance man” also made significant forays into mathematics, botany, cartography and astronomy.

Da Vinci was also a musician who dreamed up several innovative instruments, including a precursor to the piano.

Often called the father of modern science, he pioneered astronomy using a telescope and discovered the law of free fall and also the timekeeping nature of a pendulum swing.
His two daughters lived in an impoverished convent, so Galileo maintained the convent clock.

He lived only 35 years but composed more than 600 works, including the most renowned works in the Western canon, beginning when he was just five yeas old.

Mozart wrote a lot of dance music and was himself an enthusiastic dancer.

He developed the general theory of relativity and made significant advances in quantum theory, particle theory and photon theory. He is often considered the father of modern physics.

Einstein's brain was removed and preserved, without permission, by a doctor who hoped that neuroscientists might find in it an explanation for his genius.

One of the U.S. founding fathers, he developed many theories about optics, electricity and meteorology. He invented bifocals and lightning rods and was among the fist to chart the Gulf Stream.

Franklin never patented any of his inventions, believing that because he himself had borrowed from others, people should be free to borrow and benefit from his work.

She was the fist peson to win two Nobel Prizes, in chemistry and physics. Her groundbreaking work in radioactivity and radiation led to the discovery of radium and polonium.

Because of her high exposure to radioactivity, which unfortunately led to her demise, Curie's papers are still considered too dangerous to handle without protection.