Take two ounces of fine white gum arabic, and pound it to powder. Next put it into a The annexed engraving is a longitudinal section of a Submarine Propeller, invented by L. D. Phillips, of Michigan City, Laporte Co , Ind., and for which a patent was granted on the 9th of last November (185?). The object of it is for exploring the bottoms of ri vers, harbors, —c. The axis of the propeller is mounted on a universal joint, so that it can be inclined in any direction, for the purpose of applying the whole power of steering the vessel when necessary. This figure repre sents an oblong vessel made of boiler plate, or wood, and ballasted so as to descend to the proper depth. A is a strong glass light on the top, and 0 0 are small side glass lights, and D D are re flector lights; L L L L are keels for keeping the vessel steady. There are two chambers, J J', made in the inside; they are air and wa ter tight. J is the air, and J' the water cham ber. M is an air pump, to force in the air in to the chamber, J, until it is equal to the pres sure of several atmospheres ; P is a pipe com municating with the air and water chambers; The annexed engravings are views of an improvement in Railroad Frogs, invented by Marshal S. Curtis, and Edgar St. John, of Binghamton, N. Y., and for which a patent was granted on the 10th of August (1852). Figure 1 is a plan view of the railroad frog; figure 2 is a sectional elevation; fig ure 3 is a side view of the movable wrought iron point, G, showing the slots, J J, for the pins, I I, also showing the key, H, and the notch, K; figure 4 is a different style of frog point, from that of figure 5, which is an under side view of G. The same letters refer to like parts on all the figures. The improvemer.t consists in the peculiar manner of constructing the shank of the movable point, with projections, or hooks, fitting a corresponding slot or channel, form ed with recesses in the bed-plate thereof, whereby said point is secured in its seat by a wedge-shape spike, pressing against the end of the frog point, and passing through the said bed-plate, into the frog block below, which lorces said point close against the truncated end of the frog; and it may be fur ther secured from any vertical or lateral movement, by the insertion of bolts, horizon tally, through its shank and said bed-plate, thus obviating the practical disadvantages arising from the present method, in general use, of drilling holes, vertically, through that pitcher, and pour on it a pint or more of boil ing water (according to the degree of strength you desire,) and then having covered it let it set all night. In the morning, pour it care fully from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork it, and keep it for use. A table spoonful of gum water stirred into a pint of starch that has been made in the usual manner will give to lawns (either white or printed,) a look of its object is to force out water, when required, by the pressure of air through the pipe seen below, leading out at the bottom, and the pipe, S, is to allow compressed air to escape, when more water is required to increase the weight of the vessel ; C is the bottom hatch for discharging ballast, —c. T is a pipe to admit air into the pump; N N are clamp handles, whereby men in the inside can work the shears outside, for raising anything. Band H aie screws for propelling the one in front and the other behind. The former is operated by the crank, K, and the stern one by crank I. R is the rudder, it has four flukes; F is a hollow shaft of the propeller, H ; and G is the spindle of the rudder. E is a ball joint, which is so packed that no water can enter. It is this ball joint which enables the stern propel ler to be depressed, so as to make the bow of the vessel rise; or be elevated so as to make it dip, and it can also move it on any line ; Q is a pipe to take off air for supplying the ca bin,and Vis a discharge pipe. As the air is confined under a heavy pressure, a fresh quan part of said point most subject to the tread and friction of the flanches of the wheels, and lessening the expense of constructing, keeping the whole frog in efficient repair, and, conse quently, augmenting its durability. AAA, and B B form the cast metal bed plate of the frog, and C is the rail of it cast along with the said plate ; D D are clutches to embrace the rails which join on the frog; E is the part where the rails meet at one end against the frog rail, C ; F F are guard steel plates bolted to the bed plate; G is the mov-ble wrought iron frog point; H is the verti cal key at its point, and I I are cross pins. It the pins, I I were withdrawn, still the movable point could not be removed, for the key, H, will still retain it, and it cannot be withdrawn without an instrument. This manner of securing the movable point, G, is I evidently a very excellent one, as the key, H, when out, allows of the point, G, being placed to the right, then pushed to the left to make it take into the frog plate as shown in figure 2, also to make the notch, K, catch over the projecting part of said plate. The key, H, then drives all up close and tight, so that there can be no lateral nor end motion of the movable point—mdash;a most important con sideration. The claim for this improvement will be found in our list, Vol. 7, of the date mentioned above. newness when nothing else can restore them after washing. It is also good (mnch dilu ted) for thin white muslin and bobbinet.
This article was originally published with the title "Gum Arabic Starch" in Scientific American 8, 22, 172 (February 1853)