Earlier this year Charles Lieber, then chair of Harvard University's chemistry department and a nanotechnology expert, was arrested and charged with lying to federal law-enforcement officials about secretly working for the Chinese government. (His attorney, Marc L. Mukasey, told Scientific American that Lieber “maintains his innocence and eagerly awaits the chance to tell his side of the story.”) While less extreme than the Lieber story, there have been many more incidents of U.S. researchers allegedly failing to properly disclose relations with outside governments or otherwise safeguard their research from foreign intervention. In fact, officials at the National Institutes of Health have reportedly made inquiries into nearly 200 NIH-funded researchers at more than 60 U.S. institutions for potentially violating NIH conflict-of-interest, conflict-of-commitment or research-integrity rules. Many of these ideas and technologies are important to national security.