This is an improved bearing for the axles of railroad cars, the numerous advantages and features of novelty in which will appear by reference to the following description and the accompanying illustrations, in which Fig. 1 is a vertical longitudinal section, and Fig. 2 a transverse vertical section of the inventio,;i. A is the axle of the car wheel, and B the box which rests upon the upper side of the journal of the axle. This box is also seen separate in Fig. 4. C is a wedge or key that rests upon B, clearly shown in Fig. 5, where the projection, is indicated, that fits into a corresponding depression, in B, D is a wedge plate that fills the space between C and the outer case, E ; this is seen at Fig. 3. The outer case, E, is made of the usual form, and properly attached to the pedestal of the truck of the car in the usual manner. The front end of this case is covered by a plate that is secured to the case by screw bolts, so* that by removing this plate, and relieving the pressure of the car, the box, B, and wedges, C and D, together with other parts, can be removed or replaced at pleasure, without disturbing the position of the truck or of the case, E. With ordinary boxes it is necessary to detach the pedestal from the car frame, and then remove the journal box from the axle in order to inspect or repair the different portions of the box. Fig. 7 is a view of a self-adjusting washer of leather that fits closely upon the back part of the journal of the axle. This collar or washer, F, does not reach quite to the top of the outer case, leaving a space, a, bo that in the wearing away of the box, B, this collar or washer moves upward with the axle, and continuing to fit closely around the axle prevents the escape of oil or the admission of sand or dust into the cavity of the case, E. For the purpose of preventing the oil from passing behind the collar, F, a packing, c, is introduced, which runs along the base of E, and up the two sides of the washer, F. and it is pressed firmly against the back part of the case, E, by means of the slide partition, G. Fig. 6 represents the syphon spring shown also at H, Figs. 1 and 2, waste cotton thread or wicking is woven into this, by means of which the oil in the case, E, is carried by capillary attraction to the under surface of the journal. A, with which the wick is in con- j tact. At the back part of the case, E, where ' the journal passes into it as seen at I, the usual mode of packing is introduced, but as this is stationary in the case, as the box, B, wears away the packing wears also, leaving an open space upon the under side of the journal, through which, in the usual form of construction, the oil passes into the cavity of the case and escapes, while dust and dirt freely enter. In this mode of construction all this difiioulty is obviated. The slide partition, G, when placed in its proper position in the case, E, is pressed firmly against the elastic leather packing, c, by means of the pressure of the front plate of the case, E, upon the korizontal ^ wing, of the slide partition, when the front plate is brought home to its place by the I screws, e. A gasket should be introduced between the front plate, and Case, E, for the purpose of making the chamber oil tight. tJpon the inside of the front plate there projects a flange, that is nearly in contact with the end of the journal. A, for the purpose of pi*eventing end-chasing of the axle. The oil is introduced into the box by the hole, h, which is kept closed by a plug. In the construction of railroads it is impossible to avoid inequalities in the track. These inequalities necessarily produce more or less torsion or strain upon the axles, in directions at angles with the perpendicular of the plane of the axle. This strain is relieved entirely by means of concave and convex surfaces, z, on B and C, the wedge, C, remaining stationary as regards the case, E, and the box, B, remaining stationary as regards the axle, A. The strain, therefore, that would otherwise be thrown on the axle, and tend to produce its fracture, is by this simple means removed. The inventor of this excellent car axle box is R. N. Allen, of Cleveland, Ohio, and a patent was granted to him for it March 23,1858. He will be happy to furnish any further particulars upon being addressed as above. Hedenburg's Hot Water Heater At this season of the year, when so many persons are fitting up heaters in their houses^ ready for next winter, and are anxiously inquiring which is the best one, we have called our reader's attention to these comfort-dispensers by engraving such as we think good, and now illustrate another—the invention of F. L. Hedenberg, of this city—so that the reader can adopt that one which best suits his particular house. Our engraving is a perspective view of this heater, with one side removed, to show the arrangement of the pipes, and some of the pipes left out, to exhibit the fire box and appurtenances. The furnace. A, consists of a square iron chamber which contains water, (to within a few inches of the top, leaving room for the water to expand when heated,) through which a number of iron pipes, N, pass, from bottom to top, being open at both ends. Inside of each of them is another pipe, 0, somewhat smaller in diameter, closed and pointed at the bottom, and acting as a deflector to divide the column of air as it enters, and also brings it in close contact with the inside surface of the box A, forming the radiating surface. The fire pot, B, is in the center of the furnace, at the bottom, and is almost entirely surrounded by water. Directly over the fire is a smoke chamber, J, which, together with six curved tubes, M, that convey the smoke from the fire to it, are entirely surrounded by water. This exposes a very extensive heated surface to the water, and keeps it up to the temperature required, with very little fuel. It has a self-acting reservoir, P, which keeps the furnace supplied with water, and also a safety damper, R, that consists of a reservoir connected by a pipe in th bottom with the top of the furnace. A; inside of it there is a float, connected by chain and wheels with a damper in the smoke pipe, I. When the water in the furnace becomes heated above a certain point, this float will rise and close the damper and check the fire, thereby preventing the generation of steam, and keep the water, and consequently air in the house, at an even temperature. K represents a door, by which to clear out the soot and ashes from the smoke chamber, J. D is the feed door, G the ash door, by which the ashes may be taken out of the furnace. I is the smoke pipe. The arrows show the air passing in the pipes, N, at the bottom, up between them and the deflector, 0, by which it is warmed, and passes into the brick air chamber that surrounds the furnace, and thence is conveyed by air pipes and registers to all parts of the building to be warmed. It will be seen by this description that the furnace is perfectly safe, being self-acting in all its parts. The air is distributed in its most pure and healthy state. This arrangement of passing the air through the hot water vertically, by means of the pipes, N, keeps up a rapid circulation and perfect ventilation. Letters Patent were granted for this heater March 30, 1868. Any further information will be given on application to the manufacturers, F. L. Hedenberg & Son, 58 Walker St., near Broadway, New York.
This article was originally published with the title "Improved Car Axle Bearing" in Scientific American 13, 40, 316 (June 1858)