With fast running trains much time is lost in stoppages for water and fuel. The annexed engraving represents an apparatus designed to not only obviate the loss of time for taking in water and fuel, but to enable anything, as mails, express packages, etc., to be supplied to trainswhile running at full speed. A frame work made by posts and cross beams, connected by a longitudinal girder, is erected over the track at the station from which supplies are to be taken. From each of the cross beams project downwards two arms, and between these arms [is pivoted a tripping bucket of large size. The pivots are so placed that the buckets hang in a vertical position,but are so nearly balanced, when charged with water or coal, that a slight force will invert them. From the bottoms of the buckets project downward tripping arms, which, upon the passage of the locomotive, are struck by a vertical post on the top of the locomotive, attached at a suitable distance forward of the tender ; this distance varying with the speed at which the train is designed to move. The vertical post on the locomotive has a rubber buffet at the top to lessen the percussive force of its contact with the tripping arms of the buckets. The longitudinal girder which joins the cross beams should be made ' of plank and sufficiently wide to constitute a walk for the attendan whQ fill and take care of the buckets. A hose may be employed for conveying water to the buckets, and an elevator for raising coal to the level of the buckets. The tender is provided with a properly constructed hopper to receive the charge of fuel, water, or other material from the buckets. This invention is very simple, and is much cheaper than some methods hitherto successfully employed to supply water to locomotives ; while it is equally applicable to the supply af fuel or the other purposes above specified. Patented in this country November 2, 1869, and also in Europe, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, by David Harrison, of Fayette, Miss. Improved Rotary Grates Our engraving represents an improved form of rotary grate, the construction of which is so plainly delineated by our artist as to render a description almost unnecessary. It may be described, . however, as a series of rings connected by longitudinal bars and arranged parallel to each other at right angles to a longitudinal shaft; til 1 shaft serving to support the grate in the furnace, as shown. These grates have been subjected to a year's severe test in the foundery of Joseph King & Co., at Sharon, Pa., and the results of these experiments have, we are assured, established the following important claims : First. On a stationary grate the fire rests constantly on one portion of the bar, which, as a consequence, becomes overheated and warps; while, with the rotary bar, a revolution can be made which turns the heated portion of the bar away from the fire, and, at the same time thoroughly rakes the fire. Second. In raking the fire, when stationary grates are used, the doors of the furnace must necessarily be left open, for a time admitting the influx of cold air to the bottom of the boiler, and thus impairing the power of the steam. This is entirely obviated by the use of the rotary grates. Third. They are claimed to last from iom to six times longer than any other bar now in use. Fourth. A much better draft is claimed, and it must be ob- vious that a greater extent of grate surface is secured in a fire-box of given section, than where flat grates are 'used, the difference being nearly the same as between the semi-surface of a cylinder excluding the ends, and the area of its longitudinal section through its axis. Fifth. It is claimed that coal-slack, refuse lumber, saw dust etc., are efl"ectually and economically consumed in this gratp. Sixth. CFnkers and cinders are removed much easier than from fiat grates. We have not seen this grate in use, but we have been shown a large number of testimonials from practical men which fully substantiate all that is claimed for it. Its form is well calculated to secure durability, as the mass of metal in the grate is large in proportion to the fire surface. Patented by D. By-ard, Sept. 7, 1869. For ri)2'hts, etc., address By-ard, Neilor & Co., Sharon, Pa. Oxidation of Irou in Buildings The London Builder thinks the question of the mode in which iron sufi'ers from oxidation, when included in masonry, appears likely to attract fresh attention. It is a subject on which those persons who are familiar with the repairs, or even wTth the demolition of old buildings, are not altogether without experience. But especial value attaches to the discoveries made on the recent occasion of the examination and repair of the tomb of King Henry VII., in Westminster Abbey, from the fact that both the date of erection and the subsequent history of the monument, are so distinctly ascertained. After the cleansing of the statue of the Countess of Eicli-mond, to which so much public attention was directed in last May, the curators of the tombs proceeded to examine the central monument of tha Abbey, that of King Henry; VII. and his queen, standing, as is well known, in the chapel founded by that sovereign under the protection of a richly-wrought grille. Not only did the effigies appear to be coated and partially corroded in consequence of long neglect, but the altar-tomb itself gave symptoms of dilapidation and decay. Joints yawned, and cracks menaced, and the general appearance was such as is often produced, in similar structures, bysubsidence of the foundations, The effigies were therefore carefully removed and carried into the eastern apse, or smaller chapel, where they were cleaned, and that with great science. The altar-tomb itself was taken to pieces, with a view to its replacement in its original integrity. It soon appeared that no subsidence had occurred. On the contrary, the tomb had been built on the finished pavement of the chapel, and the portion of this pavement which had thus been protected from wear was in a condition of great and original splendor, being enriched with a diapered pattern, partly polished, and partly pounced or frosted. The actual cause of the dilap i dation of the tomb then ap peared. It was nothing but the oxidation of the only pieces of iron which had been employed by the builders. All the fittings were of copper, with one exception. At each corner of the tomb sits a boy angel, in gilded copper. To keep these %ures in their place copper bolts were . employed, which passed through the upper portion of the ornamental work, and were secured by attachment to four plates of iron, which were built into the tomb itself, under the slab on which the effigies rested. These four iron plates, notwithstanding their protection, first by the work of the tomb itsslt, and, secondly, by the building which sheltered the tomb from the chief vi-cissitades of atmospheric temperature, had developed, on eith3r side of each, solid plates of rust, of from three to four tims the thickness of the original iron. The slow formation of this oxido had acted as an irresistible wedge, riving the fabric asunder, and threatening in course of time the entire overthrow of thi.3 noble monument. Specimens of thesa plates of oxide, as well as'ene of the original iron plates, were exhibited at the meeting- of the Roy i1 Archooological Institute, on the 2d of J nly last. The dangerous metal has now beon replaced by plates of copper ; and the tomb has been restored to its original beauty, but the lesson as to the conduct of iron when included in masonry or in mortar, even under circumstances which might be presumed to be more than ordinarily favorable, is not one of which any prudent architect or engineer will lose sight.
This article was originally published with the title "Improved Railway Supply Apparatus, Improved Rotary Grates, and More" in Scientific American 21, 24, 369-370 (December 1869)