The object of this improvement is to save powder in blasting.this is accomplished by charge in such a manner as to get all the explosive power of the powder,much of which is lost in the common ways of charing happens that inventors are considerably in advance of public opinion in bringing out certain great improvements. Such, in fact, is the history of nearly all the most valuable inventions of the present day. Take, for example, the Nicolson Wood Pavement. The patent for this invention was origi, nally granted on 8th of August, 1854, and through the Scientific American Patent Agency an extension of the patent was secured for seven years. During the first term of the patent very little if anything was made out of it. A ride, through the streets, of New York at the present time would convince the most skeptical that the Nicolson extended pa,tJ;lt was likely to prove valuable to its owners. The wide gage, says the American Railway Times, is a fail, ure every way, and if the Erie managers will do away with it throughout their lineand by so doing they necessitate the ad°ption °f the common gage on the Atlantic and Great West- ern, and the Ohio and Mississippithey will deserve to be forgiven for some of their numerous offenses. All experienCo here and in other countries, proves the wide gage to be a great mistake, financially aild mechanically. By all means. let us have a, tlpiform. gage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. © 1869 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. ing. This is accomplished by arranging the charge in 'such a maimer as to get all the explosive power of the powder, much of which .is in the common way of charging. Improved Shelving for Stores, Public Libraries, Etc. We might.have appropriately headed this article “ Mechanical Insurance,” as it provides means whereby valuable stocks <If goods, books in public libraries and cabinets, letter cases in post offices, etc., can be readily rescued in case of fire. The engraving tells the whole story, The shelving is made in sections which can be closed with great rapidity, and run out of a building without moving goods or books, as the case may be. The sections are provided at the bottom with rollers or wheels which rest upon tracks ; and at the tops are fric tion wheels, which, rolling along a fixed guide, act to steady the sections while they are being moved. In the front ofthe build-• ing d0ors are formed, hinged at their lower ends, which can be let down outwardly. Vertical rails are fastened to the inside of these doors in such a manner that when thrown down they form a continuation of the track: V on which the sections of shelv- ingWrehsetn. the shelves contain only light goods, two or more sections may be hinged together :,; and rolled out together, or so that they may he folded togetW ./-. face to face and •fastened, thus protecting the goods, and rendering their removal more ' When the shelves are de to support heavy goods are provided with covers hinged in such a manner that they may be turned back along the shelves so as to be entirely out of sight; but so that when needed, in case of emergency, they may be rapidly and secure-. . ly closed, and the section trun dled bodily out of the building. This improvement merits general consideration, alit its adotion would not only increase the safety.of valuable property, but would doubtless lessen the rates of insurance. Patented,1869, through the Scientific Patent Agency, By William and George Koch, of Cass, Pa who may be addressed for further information. A Grain Binder---How Farmers jare Benefited. The Davenport (Iowa) Gazette states that S. F. Parker, o that city, has recently introduced an improved grain binder attached to the side of a reaper, the bed of which is traverse by a rake ou an endless belt that carries the grain from be fore the sickle, when cut, and lays it over on the binder This is a concave of sheet iron in which the grain lies unti bound. From a spool the twine unwinds through the tying apparatus, is caught by a nipper, carried around and wrappec iight on the sheaf, is tied into a perfect knot, is cut, and th( heaf drops to the ground securely bound. The making o ;he knot, never before accomplished in all the numerous at empts at binding by machinery, is completely successful :he mechanism by which this is accomplished being as cer ;ain in its operations as the making of stitch by a perfeci ewing machine. The Gazette adds, respecting this improvement, that “once n s^cessful use, they will revolutionize harvest work, and will add millions of dollars to the wealth of the nation, in the mmense saving they will effect in the cost of seeming the jrain crops of the great West." We entirely agree with our cotemporary respecting the ralue of a good grain binder to the grain-growing interests, ut will these farmers who are to he so greatly benefited, pay he patentee cheerfully for his improvement ? A correspondent writing to the World from the State Fair, t Elmira, thus speaks : “ There is not, on the face of the earth, a body of men so asily inspired with a love of improvement and excellence as he rural population of the Empire State. Show them a old-board, better by the smallest segment of a curve for in- erting the sod, and they will honoryou. Improve the in ake by the lightness or toughness of a single men ilier, and hey will discard old and buy the new. Prove Bates- )urham is better blood that Booth-Durham, and, presto, we iave an English bull at the romantic price of a thousand uineas. ” The people of New York will go to a fair, drawn by the aild and temperate attractions of smooth potatoes, good heeses, fat cattle, and excellent cooking stoves. They have >een educated by the State Board to go for these things, not o see the fierce, enkindling rivalries of a horse race. This iomely virtue should he wisely nursed. The board should ee to it that they have the noblest of bulls, the best ofhorse- akes, and the most cheering display of fruits and flowers to eep the interest alive and growing." Copper Window Sashes, These sashes are now manufactured in England under latent. The metal used is drawn copper, and Is hard and ough, The sashes, when completed, are submitted to a ronzing process and are not affected hy atmospheric in- uences The Building News says : “ They have been experi, entally proved to be weather tight, and are thus