The collar shown in the engraving is made of wood, cushioned or upholstered on its inner surface, A. At B is a stout leathern hinge, which, in connection with a piece shown at C, and in detail at the upper left-hajl corner of the engraving, renders the collar adjustable to suit the form and size of the horse's neck. The collar can be made iftger or smaller by using a larger or smaller piece of this kind, and a fit is thus obtained. This piece is held in place by dowels and strap, D, buckled and attached, as shown in the engraving The traces are attached at E, and the hold-back straps at F in the usual manner. A strong adjustable and easy collar is thus obtained without hames. The exterior of the collar may be covered with leather, and otherwise ornamented to present a tasteful appearance, and if proper materials are used a very durable collar can be made in this manner. Patented through Scientific American Patent Agency, July 20, 1869. Address, for further information, Jacques Meyers, 90 Columbia street. New York city. On the Glass Used. for Iiigll|;4B%|ise$ The special composition of the crown gfes used for the light apparatus for light-houses was, until q'lzite recently, kept a secret by the manufacturers of Saint Gobain, in France, and some firms in Birmingham, which had the inonopoly of this branch of trade. From the researches of David M. Henderson, C. E., pub lished in Dinglefs Journal, we are able to furnish the recipes for both of these. The French glass is composed of: Silicic acid........................721 parts Soda............................. 12-2 " Lime............................. 15-7 " Alumina and oxide of iron, traces. In Birmingham it is made from the following mixture : cwts. qi-s. lbs. French sand................5, — — Carbonate of soda...........l' 3 7 Lime......................0 2 7 Nitrate of soda.............0 1 0 Arseniousacid..............0 0 3 Tho best qualities of this glass are at present produced in the Siemens furnace. Wire Grass Brooms and Slruslies, M. Heuze, inspector general of agriculture for the French Government, read a paper before the last meeting of the " Societe d'Encouragement '* on the plants used for manufacturing what are known as wire grass brooms and brushes. The substance employed is collected in Italy, and grows in the sandy soil of the shores of the Adriatic, between Ancona and Venice, and principally about Reggio. It is cultivated and harvested in a similar manner to madder. Two distinct plants, the Ghrysopogon grillus, which gives fine white filaments, and the Andropogon ichneum, wiich produces the coarser material, are the producers of this substance. The root alone is employed, after having been barked and boiled in water. It is shipped to market in small bundles. The quantity seift annually to France alone is about 400,000 pounds, the cost of which varies, according to quality, from one fourth to one half of a dollar in gold per pound. N(f doubt can be entertained that these plants might be profitably cultivated in the deep sandy regions of our Southern States. Heavy Modern Macliinery, A mass of metal of a tun weight was unknown before the Christian era. Now those in cast iron up to 150 tuns, in wrought iron to 40 tuns, and in steel or bronze to 25 tuns, are made in any desired form, and turned or bored with the most perfect accuracy. Two years ago I saw the largest lathe in England, which swings 22 feet, and will take in a shaft 45 feet long. Six months ago I saw one in this country which swinis 80 feet, and will take in a shaft of 50 feet. There are planers which will plane iron 50 feet in length ; others of 18 feet in width; others of 14 feet in hight, taking off metal shavings of two and a half inches in width and a quarter thick.W. J.McAlpine.
This article was originally published with the title "Improvement in Horse Collars" in Scientific American 21, 5, 69 (July 1869)