Summer's powerful drought revealed a more than 4,000-year-old oval of at least 100 standing stones called the Dolmen of Guadalperal, which had been submerged since 1963 in an engineered reservoir.
An underwater environmental-monitoring station 48 feet below the surface of Eckernförde Bay disappeared in August. Researchers found only a frayed cable at the site of the more than 1,750-pound observatory, and the search continued with additional dives and ship-based sonar.
Scientists identified a small group of Nordmann's greenshanks, among the most endangered shorebirds, in a bog in Russia's far eastern region. They helmed the first in-depth study of the bird since 1976 and are the first ever to capture a photograph of an adult on a nest.
Researchers found that humpback whales traveling near Raoul Island, 700 miles off New Zealand's coast, learn songs from members of other breeding grounds.
Climate models have more firmly connected a record-setting cold European summer in 1816 to the previous year's eruption of Indonesia's Mount Tambora, which injected sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere and caused widespread surface cooling.
A newfound species of electric eel in Brazil, Electrophorus voltai, produces the strongest shock scientists have ever measured from a living animal. It can let loose 860 volts; a Taser delivers about 1,200.