At first glance, a patient in a persistent vegetative state may appear only to be resting, eyes open. But such patients show no sign of recognizing or interacting with their surroundings, and the likelihood that they ever will decreases as the months pass. Relatives and doctors face the difficult choice between continuing or ending life support, guided only by statistics and each patient's unique clinical profile. That may soon change. Scientists at the University of Cambridge and the University of Liège in Belgium reported that they had used MRI brain-imaging technology to detect signs of awareness in a 23-year-old woman who had been in a vegetative state for five months. “The brain scan showed us that not only was she able to understand speech, she was able to follow simple instructions,” says Adrian M. Owen, lead author of the study.