The great advantages of storing up heat in steam, from which it can be transmitted to water by condensing the steam in the water, have long been recognized in large establishments devoted to dyeing, soap making, and other industries necessitating the use of large quantities of hot water. The large amount of latent heat in steam is thus converted into sensible heat in water, and so much greater is the latent heat of steam at 212° than of water at the same temperature, that one pound of steam at 212°, condensed in five and a half pounds of water at 32°, will give a result of six and one half pounds of water at 212°. Thusone pound of steam will cause five and a half pounds of water to boil, and, as the transfer of the heat to the steam is extremely rapid, this method is employed with economy and great convenience to heat water held in wooden tanks, etc., at a distance from the furnace, which may be so constructed as to conduct the heat to the boiler and retain it therein more effectively than could be possible were the heat applied to the bottom of an open vessel. There are, however, some drawbacks to this method as hitherto practiced, which. among other things secured, the invention herewith illustrated is designed to obviate. During the admission of the steam into water at any ordinary temperature, the steam being discharged directly into the water, there is a constant succession of loud reports, very disagreeable to listen to; and when the temperature rises towards the boiling point, steam will begin to escape from the surface of the fluid undergoing the process ofheating, and thus more orless heat will be lost unless care is taken to constantly adjust the flow of steam to the rate at which condensation takes place. The apparatus under consideration obviates both these difficulties by mixing steam and water together in constant streams, which can be proportioned so as to deliver the water into a tank or locomotive boiler at any temperature required between 32° and 212° Its external shell is of the conical form, shown in Fig. 2, while its internal construction is shown in section in Fig. 1. A is the water induction port, and B the steam induction port. The water entering at A is forced on, by the pressure of its head, or by a force pump, through a corrugated pipe, D, and discharged through it at a short distance from and within the apex of the external conical case. This pipe is formed so as to present four corrugations, leaving very thin spaces between their inclosing walls, through which the water flows in very thin strata. This pipe is also formed of thin sheet copper, and therefore transmits heat with great rapidity to the water from the steam, which flows all around, within the space in closed between this water-induction pipe and the outor cone. the steam thus imparts its heat gradually to the water, and whatever residuum there may be left, on its reaching the end of the water-induction pipe, is condensed there in the current of water, with which it mingles, both then flowing out together, in the form of water heated to a temperature regulated by the proportional flow of the water and steam. A check valve, C, prevents any returnflow which might ensue upon too great an increase of steam pressure in proportion to the water pressure inadvertently applied. Those acquainted with the theory and applications of heat and steam will recognize in this instrument perfect compliance with scientific principles, and its convenience, in large laundries, dye houses, breweries, etc., etc., will b'3 apparent. The temperature obtainable in the water heated, of course, depends upon dimensions and capacity of boiler, velocity of induction of both steam and water, and the temperatures of the steam and water; but as all these things can be adjusted and are susceptible of mathematical determination, any temperature between 32° and 212°, for any quantity of water required is attainable, and even the time required to heat it may be computed. There is, therefore, no element of uncertainty in the operation. the instrument has been used in the soap and candle works of the inventor, hose being employed to deliver heated water to any part of the building to increase the temperature of fluids flowing from one vat to another, etc. It has also received warm commendations from prominent steam engineers in the West, and has been adopted after, trial in the House of Correction, at Detroit, for heating the baths in that institution, etc. It is well adapted for cooking and laundry purposes in penitentiaries, prisons, almshouses, hospitals, ho tels, etc., and, the inventor informs us, is being adopted by the Michigan Central Railroad for washing cars. Many other applications of this invention will suggest themselves to practical men, one of which is likely to be its application to heating water for locomotive boilers after they are blown off. It now takes about three hours to blow off, clean out, refill, and get up steam in an ordinary locomotive boiler. By the employment of this heater taking steam from a stationary boiler, the boiler might be washed out with hot water, and immediately filled with water at 212°, thus enabling it to start in one third the time now occupied for this purpose. These heaters are made to deliver streams varying from one half an inch to two inches in diameter. Patented, July 13, 1869, by Wm. B. Mack, 23 St. Antoine street, Detroit, Mich., whom address for State and Territorial rights. A New Alarm Bell lor Locomotives, A new alarm bell was tested on the Detroit and Milwau kee Railroad lately. The invention consists of an ordinary bell, weighing about 100 lbs., placed on the platform of tho locomotive, immediately over the cow-catcher. A rod attached to the eccentric shaft causes a clapper to strike the bell each turn of the driving wheel. The bell is suspended loosely, and revolves from the force of the stroke it receives, so that all parts of the surface are equally exposed to wear. The advantages of this arrangement are a continuous sound, slow or rapid in proportion to the speed of the engine, each 15 ft . producing a stroke of In case of an accident, the railroad company can always prove that their bell was ringing according to law; and owing to the position in which this bell is placed, the sound can be distinctly heard about three miles in day-time, and by night four miles or more, the ground and the continuous rail, both excellent conductors of sound, assisting in carrying the vibrations. The Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad have twenty-four of these alarms already in use, and intend to provide all their passenger engines with them. Mr. Ben. Briscoe, the inventor, went to Detroit in 1837, and in 184.2 took charge of the Detroit and Pontiac, then a strap railroad, with pony engine and one little car, and performed the duties of master mechanic, en-ginee^ fireman, and sometimes of conductor. In those days signal bells were unnecessary, because the train did not run fast enough to hurt cattle. Georgia State Fair.—The State Agricultural Society o f Georgia will hold a Fair at Macon, Ga., beginning on Tuesday, Nov. 16, 1869, and offer an extensive premium list, only a portion of which is limited to the State of Georgia, mosrt of the premiums being open for competition to exhibitors from any part of the United States. Information ma^ we pre sume, be obtained on application to the Secretary, D. W Lewis, Esq., Sparta, Ga. © 1869 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. October 16, 1869.] 245 Improved Cotton and Hay Press. A notice of this press was given in an article on the Exhibition of the American Institute, published on page 217, current volume of this journal. It may now be seen at the fair 'exhibited by Mr. Champman, the patentee. It was there stated to have been manufactured and exhibited by Whitney&Co., instead of which the name should have been Campbell, Whittier&Co. We herewith give an illustration and brief description of this press, which will give a general idea of its form and operation. By the engraving it will be seen that the bale is made at the bottom, and that the side and end doors are easily removed, thus giving free access to the bale from all sides. The follower block, shown as at the top, may be swung over to one side when the press is to be filled, leaving the top of the press perfectly open to receive the material to be pressed. When full the follower is returned to its place, shown by the dotted lines , and worked down. The levers are compound, and also adjustable, so that the fulcrum may be altered to make a short stroke, when the article is loose and little power is needed, or a long stroke, as it becomes more compressed and great force is obtained. By the peculiar arrangement of the levers and clutches, the follower maybe raised very quickly and independently of the levers. In most other presses it requires as much, or nearly as much time to raise the follower block as it does to compress the cotton. In this the follower is run up quickly and swung over to one side, thus being entirely out of the way for refilling. These presses are sold cheap, and are durable and substantially made, and from the construction we judge them to be very effective. Patented January 15, 1867. For further particulars address Campbell, Whittier&Co., Manufacturers, Boston, Mass. tongue, soft palate, and fauces, and which constitute the organ of taste, are boiled by hot tea. and coffee, burned by hot food, and irritated and inflamed by salt, pepper, spices, vinegar, liquors, etc., until it is a wonder that they can distin-' guish a peach from a potato. That these things do bluntand injure the finer susceptibilities of the nerves of taste, there is not a shadow of doubt. The only wonder is that they do not destroy the sense of taste entirely. Persons accustomed to using these things freely can not distinguish the delicate natural flavors of food, arid therefore lose a large share of that gustatory enjoyment which they should experience, and which those who still possess a healthy taste do experience. To an unpcrverted taste water is the sweetest and most agreeable of drinks, while to many it is scarcely endurable, unless it has mingled with it some sharp, strong-flavored substance. Many persons can not relish the delicious peach Nervous Dyspepsia. Those persons who use their brains much, and who have but little tone or power to their stomachs, should above all things avoid purgatives. So saysthe The Seralcl ff HecRt/i, and adds that very much of the nai ural distress which this class of dyspeptics feel, is caused by the large intestine becoming weakened, dislocated, and filled up with offending matters which there is not strength to remove. In such cases, it is important that the patient do less work with his head, and more with his muscles. If there is strength enough, the daily use of ax or hoe for three or four hours will prove highly beneficial. Riding on horseback is an excellent exercise, providing the saddle is a comfortable one and the horse an easy goer. Hard-trotting horses are not good ones for invalids to ride. A galloping horse is the best for such a person. Those who live in the country can easily take either of these forms of exercise, but they are not always available in the city. In such cases the gymnasium or movement cure are valuable means of treatment. Half an hour daily for a nervous dyspeptic in a movement cure will work wonders. The diet should be plain and nutritious. It will . not do to overload the stomach, yet as much food as can be digested well should be taken. Mastication should be slow and thorough. Such invalids are apt to eat too fast, The remedy for that is to talk a great deal at the table ; to get if possible into a good humor before taking a mouthful, and keep in it to the end of the meal. It is generally best to omit the dessert. Fruit is often condemned by the nervous dyspeptic. We are sure, however, that it is not always the fruit which is at fault, but the way of using it. Let it be taken in the morning, and before anything else is eaten, if possible ; at first, take small quantities to accustom the stomach to it, Avoid fine bread, vegetables, and pastry ; also tea, coffee, and tobacco. Omit the supper, or at least, let conversation at the table be much and eating little. It is often advisable to cover the abdomen with the wet compress in this disease for an hour or two daily. The compress should be covered with a dry one. A sitz bath at bed time is very serviceable if there is a disposition to sleeplessness, as sleep is very necessary. Patients can not have too much sleep. If mental labor is performed, let it be done between 9 in the morning and 1 p. m. After this, dine and recreate, or perform light physical labor. The after-dinner nap may be useful, providing it does not not interfere with sleep at night, in which case an hour of quiet and rest is better. The habit of drugging for this disease with all sorts of quack nostrums is very absurd. Hygiene medications will do all that can be done much bettor. The grand rule should be to live naturally and happily, and throw medicines to the dogs, and nine cases out of ten the sufferer will get well. Impaired Taste. Of all the senses, that of taste is the worst treated, the most perverted. The delicate little nervous fibers which are distributed to the piinute papillse that cover the surface of the CHAPMAN'S COTTON AND HAY even, without peppering and spicing it highly, and then it is not the peach that they taste but the condiments used withit. To such persons, plain, simply-prepared food tastes insipid, while those whose organs of tastes are unpel'verted such food is filled with delicious flavors. Those who have impaired their sense of taste can, to a certain extent, have it restored, by carefully avoiding the use of the substances which caused the inj ury. The increase of gustatory enjoyment which they will experience from such a change, will only be believed after thorough trial. There is scarcely one in a thousand whose taste is not more or less perverted and blunted by the use of highly seasoned food or drinks. Simple, healthful food is the exception, while rich, strongly-flavored, and complicated dishes are the rule, because demanded by the perverted tastes of the people.—Her aid of Health.
This article was originally published with the title "Mack's Improved Feed-Water Heater" in Scientific American 21, 16, 244-245 (October 1869)