Improved-ystems of extraction by the use of steam power appears to have exercised a beneficial influence on the mining: industry of Prussia. In 1837 there were 1,58? mines worked in Prussia, giving employment to 33 161 miners. In 1867 this number had increased to 2.452, with 48,351 miners. The total value of the mineral production, which in 1837 was 833,932*, in 1867 amounted to upwards of 8,565,000*. Jay Gould has notified the Postmaster General that unless the Department increases the pay for the Erie railroad service from $180,000 to $330,000, he shall refuse to carry the mails. The Postmaster General has informed Mr. Gould that this exorbitant demand cannot be acceded to. The pay now received by the company is the same per mile per annum as received by the Central and other roads. A writer in Hearth and Rome has found the best way to take starch out of bleached goods to be as follows "Make strong soap suds, and dip the goods in it, and hang them out to dry without wrfcging. They will be perfectly soft and free from starch, and nice to work either by hand or machine. A railroad route has been.surveyed from Pittsfleld,Mass., to Htirtland and thence to St. Albans, Vt., about two miles beyond Hartland. The route h very level, and it is estimated the road could be built for $16,000 a mile. The legislature has authorized the towns of Hartland and St. Albany to lonn their credit for twenty per cent of their valuation, in aid of the enterprise. It is stated that the committee of the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce invite proposals for deepening the water at the mouth of the Missis ippi. The committee are also instructed to endeavor to obtain from the Government the dredge coat now in U3e, with the balance of the appropriation yet unusued,for deepening the passes. A railroad tie, of polished California laurel, mounted on each end with solid silver, accompanied by a spike of solid gold, costing $200, was forwarded from San Francisco, on May 4, to the end of the Central Pacific Railroad. It is the last tie, and was to be laid byLeland Sanford, on Saturday, May 8, thus completing the Pacific Railroad. The Vancouver Register says that an extensive coal bed has beendicov-ered on the east fork of Lewis Paver, twenty miles from Vancouver. The vein is fourteen inches thick and seven feet in width. A large amount oflumber and iron ore will be landed at Michigan City. Iowa, this season. One contract is for 7.C00 tuns of ore; and firms in Lafayette have contracted for the delivery of 4,000,000 feet of lumber and 3,000,000 shingles and lath. A company has been organized, with the capital subscribed, to construct a telegraph line from St. Louis, through Texas, to the Pacific coast. Some of the parties were recently in Washington to perfect the arrangements. At the Royal Bronze Foundery, at Munich, Bavaria, among other works inprogress is Rogers' monument for thesoldiers of Rhode Island, which, by the contract has to be finished and delivered at Providence about a yeai from this time. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue has decided that the conditions printed on blanks for telegraphic messages are in the nature of an agreement and must have a five cent stamp. In 1848 there were 4 247 patents in force in England. In 1868 the number had increased to 11,369, including 11" prolongations*" Boston firms send about 17,000 casks of nails a month for building purposes all over the country, and dispose of nearly 2 000 each month at home. In 1861, the boot and shoe manufacture of Baltimore amounted to only 500 pairs weekly; now, over 1G,COO pairs are made in the same time, and the business is still increasing. The iron founderies of Troy, N. Y., are all running on full time and employ an unusually large number of men. Several locomotives were shipped lately from Paterson, N. J., for iWinne-sota and other Western roads. Inventions Patented in England by Americans. [Compiled from the "Journal of the Commissioners of Patents."] PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR SIX MONTHS. 351.—TKACTION RAILWAY.—Wm. A. Sutton, New York city, and Eugene Crowell, San Francisco, Cal. Feb. 4,1869. 751.—ATTACHMENT FOK ADJUSTING COKDS FOK HANGING PICTURES, ETC. —R. a'Heureuse, San Francisco, Cal. March 11,1369. 844.—WATERPROOF OvEiiSHOES.—A, O. Bourn, Providence, R.I. March 19, 1869. 856.—APPARATUS FOR MEASURING LIQUIDS;—G. B. Massey, NewYork city. March 20,1869. 904.—MACHINERY FOR FOLDING PAPER*—S C. Forsaith, Manchester, N.H. March 25,1869. 915.—MACHINERY FOR PRESSING OIL, TOBACCO, ETC.—Enoch Thomas, Craigsvllle, and R. C. Walker andS. R. Hendsen, Parnassus, Va. March 25, 1869. 919.—ELECTRIC CLOCK.—S. A. Kennedy, Attleborough, Pa. March 25, 1869. 940.—BLOWING APPARATUS.—B. F. Sturtevant, West Roxbury, Mass. 941.—HORSESHOE NAILS, AND isr MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN SUCH MANUFACTURE.—S. E. Chase, Boston, Mass. March 29,1869. 841.—WEIGHING SCALES.—Peter Falardo, Danbury, Conn. March 19,1869. 843.—MOTIVE POWER FOR SEWING AND OTHER MACHINES.—Jacob Zucker-man, San Francisco, Cal. March 19,1869. 857.—MOTIVE POWEE ENGINES.—Js E. Culver, Hudson, N. J. March 20 859.—HAY-TEDDING MACHINE.—L. H. Tasker, Boston, Mass. March 23 873.—CHAIR.—J. E. Emerson, Trenton, N. J. March 22,1869. 875.—MACHINERY FOR RUBBING AND MIXING PAINTS, ETC.—Robert Poole Baltimore, Md. March 22,1869. SJT.—MAoriiNTBRY FOR MAKING MATCH SPLINTS, STC —F, de Bowens Philadelphia, Pa. March 23,1869. 888.—HEATING OF CARRIAGES, VESSELS, BUILDINGS ETC.—W. L. Burton Richmond, Va. March 24,18G9. 896.—MECHANISM FOR WORKING ORDNANCE.—J. B. Eads, St. Louis, Mo March 24, 1869. 912.—MACHINERY FOR TILLING LAND.—R. W. Heywood. Baltimore. Md March 25,1869. 933.—PROCESSES AND APPARATUS FOR EXTRACTING OLEAGINOUS MATTER PROM VEGETABLE, ANIMAL, OR MINERAL SUBRTHNCES, IN THE PREPARA noN OF MATERIAL FOR DISTILLATION, ETC.—Thomas Sim and E. S. Hutch inson, Baltimore, Md. March 27,1869. 937.—BREECH-LOADING FIREARMS ANP CARTRIDGES THEREFOR.—Gustav Bloem, Dusseldorf, Prussia, and Ernest Scheldt, New York city. March 29 1869. 944.—STEREOSCOPE —J. F Adams ,New York city. March 29,1869. 946.—SEWING MACHINE.—J. A. House and H. A. House, Bridgeport, Conn March 30,1869. 956.-DISTILLING HYDROCARBON OILS.—Henry Grogan, Flatbush, N. Y March 30,18C9. 957.—SEWING MACHINE TABLE.—Singer Manufacturing Co. (Incorporated) New York city. March 30,186J. 931.—ENGRAVING AND CHASING ARTICLES OF METAL.—Thomas Lippiatt Orange, N. J. April 1,1869. 990.—HAT.—Henry Herbert, Jersey City, N. J. April 1,1889. 1,004.—COAL AND GRAIN BOAT ELEVATOR.—S. K. Hoxsie, Philadelphia, Pa April 2,1869. 1,017.—BREECH-LOADING FIREARM.—Everett Boyd and P. S. Tyler, Boston Mass. April 3,1869.
This article was originally published with the title "Manufacturing, Mining, and Railroad Items" in Scientific American 20, 21, 331 (May 1869)