The prospectus of the "West Indian and Panama Telegraph Company lias been issued. The design of the company is to connect South America with Europe and the United States by means of a cable from Cuba to Central America. It is stated that, the thick toiuh sap found in large quantities in the leaves of New Zealand ilax, may be converted into a gum for sealing envelopes, which, when dry, unites the Burfaces of paper so thoroughly that no process of steaming or soaking will permit them to be separated again, lor this reason, it is now being used in large quantities in England, in the propara tion of what are called "safety envelopes." An important reduction in the charges for messages by the old Atlantic cablehas been made. Since August 10, dispatches could be sent at the fol* lowing rates: Thirty shillings sterling, or i'I'5O, gold, for ten words ; stnd three shillings sterling, or seventy-five cents, gold, for cadi extra word. Press messages are sent at one half the above rates. Mr. Welborn, in the BeuWJie TiuL Zettung, says that proto-sulphate of ironcan be absolutely preserved from oxidation by placing with it a piece of camphor wrapped in a piece of clean and dry paper. Wooden toothpicks are made by patent machinery, and the manufacture of these articles is principally, if not wholly, carried on at an establishment near Boston, which has been In operation for four years. The aggregate number sold is quite large, sometimes amounting to live millions a flay. A light-house is being erected at the south-west, pass, in the Mississippi river. Itwili bo of east iron, and the workwiil be completed as speedily as possible. The recent exhibition of textile fabrics in Cincinnati shows that the South is largely extending its cotton maiiufactorh',.-*. According to the latest reports, Georgia has forty seven cotton mills; South Carolina, forty ; Missouri, twenty-seven; Alabama, eleven ; Tennes?eo, forty; and there fire also many mills in North Carolina and South Carolina. The prodnct generally is fine shirtings :ir.d sheetings, and tlie specimens exhibited at Cincinnati compared favorably with the goods from the Jew Knglaud manufactories. In nineteen years Ihcre lias been an increase of 1,817 factories awl 2G1,K,S2 bands in connection with the textile industries of Great Britain. The number of spinning spindles during the same period inereaserl from 2r,fi.'i8,"a5 to 41.51G.4H4 ; am] the number of power looms from 301,44" to nl9.3G5. The motive horse power increased from 1830 to 1S63 as follows:—Steam, from 10S.1 13 to 332,851; water, from 26,104 to 29,830. An international exhibition is to be hell in Turin,in 1872, to commemorate the completion of the Mont Cenig tunnel. The tunnel of the Marietta (Ohio) Uailroail is cut under a well of excellent water. The well is asgood as ever, and not a drop leaks through, although trains pass directly under it. Iowa will soon have four railroads connecting the Mississippi and the Missouri rivers. The great central line extending from Davenport to Council Blutfs, is just completed and in successful operation. Two others, one beginning at Dubuquc, and already buiH to Fort Dodge, and the oilier at Burlington, will be completed in a few months. The Common Council of Newark have adopted a resolution to commence. an action against the Newark and New York Bailroad Company for a violation of the provisions of their charter of the City ordinance, by crossing Hamilton street at such an angle as to practically destroy its value for pub -lie travel. The manual labor system at Cornell University appears to work well. One student supports himself by cabinet making, another by printing, another by photography, while others work on the farm. One young imm who sweeps thcrooms and makes tires lias taken the lirst prize in m-hnc and German. The seventh Industrial Exhibition of the Mechanic1,-' Institute oi' Hau Francisco, will commence in that city on the 141 h of September, IS'J'J. Ttv? building cost $45,000, and covers an area of 70,000 feet. St. Louis, anticipating shipments of silver ore from Colorado as s*)o*i as the Kansas Pacific Railroad is finished to Denver, is about to erect, smelting furnaces to meet the requirements of the expected new branch of industry . On a farm at Ida, Monroe County, Michigan, there is an immense block of granite whichisan objectof curiosity. The stone is about 40feethigh.:Wfeet long and 20 feet wicle, and upon the surface, which is as smooth as a planed floor, there can plainly be seen tlie foot-prints of an immense bear. The Portland andKenncbec Biilroad Company is putting a monster trip lu-muier into its machine shop at Augusta. It was purchased in Philadelphia, and coat $'3,000. It "weighs twenty-three tuns. and will strike a blow ol 2.000 pounds, and maybe graduated to strike witha. force anywhere fvom 2,000 pounds to one pound. The Uoyal assent has been given to the bill for the purchase of the British. telegraph lines by the Government. The Liverpool Chamber of Commerce has resolved to send a crcular letter to the chambers of commerce in this country, advocating the discojitiu -iianee of the weighty and unnecessary covering, andheavy iron bands on cotton bales, and suggesting tlie adoption at American ports of the same system for the allowance of tare which prevails in England. A dispatch from Lisbon states that a French company oilers to form u telegraph line from Lisbon and Gibraltar to England and A merira, on a twenty years' concession and without subsidy. Tlie New York t-'.tate Agricultural Sor.irfy v.'ilf liold if; l:venty-uintb r;,n-?mal exhibition anil fair at F.lmira. on liic Mill, !3th, UlUi, and 17th il:iys of ~e,i,ei)!b:r next. l(].hibitoi'H or persons hitr.h'liir' 1,0 present animals or ;;r tides for exhibition are required, by a rule of the Society, to make their i'litries on orbefore Saturday, the 24th iiiKt. Cars fitted with chairs are now run willi the v:i o'clock night "train over the Now Jersey Kaiivoiul. These -nr.~ ;u'u intefiderl to answer ttuj pori!(,H; ofslosvpinis cars. A strike is in progress amongthe miners of the White Pine gold regions. A large number of miners are at work, however, at @4per day, and it is thought that the dissatisfied workmen will finally be compelled to return to their labors at the same rate. The miners already at work have formed a protective society, and promise to resist any infringement of their lights by the Miners' Union. The Viceroy of Egypt has ordered a large quantity 01 sugar-making machinery from a Paris finn. The total amount of the order is about $3,000,000. An addition of glycerin to the glue and molasses of which printers' ink rollers are usually made in said to act very beneficially, and removes all endency of the rollers to become hard, or to dry and crack. The Indiana State Gcologist/iProfessor E. . Cox, has returned home after quite an extended investigation in the counties of Owen, Clay, Vigo and Parke. Ho found large deposits of coal and considerable iron ore in all these counties, and traced the belt of block coal from the south-western portion of Owen County up into the extreme northern corner of Parke, while it is his belief—and some little surface Investigation has supported the idea—that the block coal extends as far north as Fountain. A petition is circulating for a light-house and fog signal at Ash Point Island, in the Muscle Ridge Channel, Maine. One important fact stated in connection with the necessity for a light and fog signal at this point is, that during the year ending June 30th, last, 31,401 vessels passed Owl's Head in the daytime, and the number of vessels navigating these waters is said to be increasing at the rate of 3,000 a year. The great needle manufactory of Carl Schleicher, in Schonthal, near Puren, on the Rhine, exported in the year 1868 no less than 340,000,000 of sewing needles, which were disposed of in various parts of the continent of Europe, in North and South America, and in Africa.
This article was originally published with the title "Manufacturing, Mining, and Railroad Items" in Scientific American 21, 9, 139-140 (August 1869)