The French Government has authorized the French Cable Company to lay a cable from Brest to England. The soft rock of the Hoosac tunnel has been passed and solid rock struck again so that the contractors will not have so much to do with brick arching as they expected. The Board of Health of this city has urged upon the Fire Commissioners the appointment of an inspector of kerosene and other burning fluids. The Fire Commissioners referred the request to a committee, and suggested instead, that some instrument capable of testing oil by the general public should be introduced. The St. Louis County Court has decided to cease further operations In Doring the artesian well, already the deepest in the world. The depth -cached was 3,843 feet, and the water obtained there was very salt. Some nembers of the court wished to continue the work until the well was 4,000 reet deep, but a majority decided against this on account of the expense; ;he latest work in boring being nearly forty doUars a day, and the progress nade in that time about five inches. The well is to be plugged up at a lepth of about 1,200 feet, where pure water can be obtained by pumping. More than one thousand men are at work on the air line railroad between d:iddletown and New Haven. A few piles have been driven for the bridge icross the Connecticut at the former place, simply to ascertain the nature )f the river's bed. Temperance principles and habits of cleanliness are not likely under present arrangements to make much headway in the City of Brotherly Love, 'hiladelphia is outgrowing its water supply. What with the low ebb to hich the water of the SchuylkiU Kiver has fallen, the defective means of .tilizing the available supply, and the late deplored conflagration of whis-:ey, lager beer must be at a premium. It is not often that we are able to ive an instance in which our sanitary arrangements can compare f avora-ly with those of Philadelphia ; but in this case we are able to point with , atisfaction to our abundance of water, and we suggest that our neighbors light do worse than imitate our example in the enterprise ffhown in the orks by which we obtain our Croton supply. i Trade has lately received some impetus here on account of the low rate t which freight could be conveyed to the West over our principal rail-Dads. Goods for Chicago which a short time ago were charged at $1*88 per ; undred pounds for first class, i|l-60for second, and 81*27 for third, paid nly 25 cents per hundred, while the fourth class, heretofore 82 cents, fell 318 cents. A nearly equivalent reduction was made in the rates to other ] laces The cause of this is stated to be a supposed violation of an agree-lent previously made by the great lines engaged in Western transporta-on, for a fixed rate applicable to all, except by the " all water " route, hich, being siOw, was 45 cents per hundred against $1*88 by the railroad -nes.' The difficulty will,it is supposed, be adjusted shortly and the old iriff will again be in force. j The weekly production of cotton at Lowell has amounted.[to 2,391,000 ards, and the number of spindles in the woolen and cotton manufactories 457,512. The great ship canal which is to connect Amsterdam with the North Sea, now once more in progress, the Government of the Netherlands having ] ilieved the contractors of certain difiiculties which for a time hindered le work. The canal will be about llfteen miles in length. The Zuyder Be is to be shut out from Amsterdam, and the Pampus dam by which this to be effected is already half finished, and the locks and sluices connected I ith it are in progress. By this undertaking Holland will add one more to jr grand engineering works, but it andcars to be an English firm that j )lds the contract. What California will one day be, with its healthful climate and fruitful lil.maybe Inferred from the present enterprise of her population. Al- ady her manufactures are estimated at thirty millions of dollars per an-im, and they comprise woolen and cotton factories, iron mills, tanneries. boiler works, brass founderies, saw mills, powder mills, paper mills, and almost every kind of manufacturing operations which can be found in our oldest states. f The Japanese colonists in California, have purchased another tract ot" 3 land in Placer County for a tea and mulberry plantation. Herr Schell will return to Japan for the purpose of bringing a large addition to the colo-ists, and a fresh stock of mulberry plants. Therecent hot weather in Europe, it is said, has destroyed the oyster beds on the coast of France, and the oyster harvest of the present year will be a total failure. About 45.000 tuns of ice are annually [imported iinto Great Britain from Norway. ' A mixture called " Hallogenin," which is intended to prevent the f orma-f tion of incrustation in steam boilers, is sold extensively in Germany, and is said to answer the purpose very we)l. It consists of 65 per cent of sal aro moniac, 17 per cent of chloride of barium, and 18 per cent of catechu. P The Chicago Railway Eevieio says the earnings of the Central Pacific Railroad for July were $579,000, an increase of $35,000 over the month of June. Notwithstanding the successive reductions of rates, the result of operations of the first three months since the connection of the eastern lines , show a revenue at the rate of $7,000,000 per annum, ofwhich $3,000,000 is net. The Grand River nurseries, located five miles southeast of Lowell, Michi- gan, occupy acres, having 600000 apple trees. 200,000 peach, 50,000 cher-ry, 40,000 plum, 30,000 pear, 20,000 quince, and 60,000 miscellaneous trees and ) shrubs. There is also a vineyard with over 1,000 bearing vines. J The express car of Wells, Fargo, and Company, passing Elko, Nevada, on f the 23d of July, had in it two tuns of bullion for New York.
This article was originally published with the title "Manufacturing, Mining, and Railroad Items" in Scientific American 21, 10, 155 (September 1869)