Doubtless the majority of the readers of the Scientific American have a more or less distinct impression that New York was in some degree associated with the development of the first steamboat; but it will, no doubt, be a pleasant surprise to learn that this city has a threefold claim to be called the cradle of the steamship. The first practical river steamer, the first vessel propelled by steam to make a deep sea voyage, the first transatlantic steamship, and the first steam warship, all owed their existence to the inventive genius of New York designers and the practical skill of New York craftsmen. In drawing attention to this interesting coincidence, we would not detract from the fame and credit due to the earlier inventors of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Blasco de Garay and Denis Papin were undoubtedly the pioneer investigators of the possibilities of steamship propulsion, and, to a certain extent, they proved its possibility; but the mechanical forms in which they embodied their ideas were crude and possessed no practical commercial value. While the theory of steam navigation was old, centuries old, it required some master mechanic to embody this idea in practical, mechanical shape, and this was what Robert Fulton, associated with R. Livingston, accomplished, when, on August 7. 1807, he saw his first steamer, the Clermont, cast off her moorings at the New York docks and start on her maiden trip to Albany. To Colonel John Stevens, and, indirectly, to a monopoly of navigation on the Hudson, granted to the owners of the Clermont, New York owes the distinction of having built the first deep sea steamer; and the credit of building the first steamer to make a transatlantic passage is shared by New Yoi-k conjointly with Savannah, Ga. The Savannah having been built at New York and engined at the Southern seaport. Of scarcely less historic interest than the Clermont is the battle ship Fulton the First, which was named after the designer, and testifies yet further to his inventive genius. Like the other pioneer ships in their respective classes, the Fulton was built in New York ship yards, and thus clearly establishes this city's claim to be called the cradle of the modern steam battle ship. A cut of the original plans for this vessel will be found in the Scientific American Supplement for April 21,1894. The dimensions of this vessel prove that Fulton had the courage of his convictions, for her displacement was greater than that of the average three-decker of that period, and considerably over that of the Victory, which carried Admiral Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar. The Fulton the First showed a trial speed of over 6 miles an hour, which was far above the average, day in and day out, speed of the fleetest sailing frigates of those times. In many details she anticipated the modern war ship; as, for instance, in the provision that she should be "furnished with four submarine guns, to discharge a hundred pound ball into an enemy, ten or twelve feet below her water line." The cross section shows that her engines and boilers were placed low down in the hold, and that the portion above the water line was protected by side armor of 5 feet of oak, an amount which was certainly impenetrable by the ordnance of that date. It is unquestionable that, with her greater maneuvering power, her 100 pounder guns, and the superior protection afforded to the gunners, she would have proved more than a match for the best ship of the line of that date. The close of the war of 1812 prevented her from testing her strength against the English ships ; but tradition has it that the appearance of this 2475 ton monster, gliding swiftly down the bay, with no visible means of propulsion, struck terror into the "indomitable heart" of the British tarl Analysis of Emerald. The author has operated on the emerald of Limoges (Chanteloube, Haute Vienna). He gives the following results: I. II. Loss at a red heat............................. 1'46 141 Silica.......................................... 6606 6580 Alumina..................................... 161 16-40 Glucose (? should be glucina) .................14-33 14-21 Ferric oxide................................... 1'2 0'9 Mn3O4........................................ Magnesia....................................... 0f5 0-6] Lime........................................... 017 0 14 Phosphoric acid............................. 011 009 Alkalies...................................... - Titanicacid.....................................traces traces 100-11 99-67 P. Lebeau, 387 erde Note.. All cyclometers should be provided with some means of correction. It is nothing unusual to find them from three to five per cent out, owing, very likely, t to the varying diameter of the wheel, depending m on whether the tire is fully inflated or not. A new c cyclometer is on the market which registels not ouly e 10,000 miles, but has also a special dial for indicating i the miles made on a single trip. Another dial marks i the fraction of a mile. 1 November 22 the doors of the Agricultural Hall, London, were thrown open for the nineteenth cycle s exhibition, in the name of the Stanley Club. An a eager crowd of visitors was immediately admitted to s mark the improvements, alterations, and innova- t tions that were proposed for cycles and their accessories for next season's mounts. I The Simpson lever chain was one of the first of the exhibits to receive long and careful attention. The auto-cars, the bi-tricycles and the motorcycles 1 next received a due share of rapt attention, public e interest after these exhibits had been visited becoming more general and spreading itself out impartially over s the various mechanical devices thought out by the different firms and brought together under one roof by the enterprise and perseverance of the Stanley show promoters. There are, comparatively, but few three-wheelers on exhibition. and even these few, beautifully constructed and finished as they are, receive but scant notice. There is no doubt about the matter that the bicycle is the machine for both men and women. One of the many interesting features introduced was the display of many forms of dress considered suitable for cycling. The extensive photographic collection in the gallery attracted attention. It is becoming more and more popular for the snap shot photographic apparatus to be numbered among the ordinary necessaries of the cycling tourist's outfit, and the enlargements exhibited as the result of snap 'shot photography certainly suggest that the art is one that is to be-eome of far more widespread interest than it is, even at the present stage of photographing enthusiasm. One of the great attractions of the Stanley has proved to be a machine shown by the makers of the Gladiator, boasting a 214 inch tread. The relay ride from Washington to New York City was ended Monday morning, December 2, in New York, at 4:48 o'clock, when Lieutenant Libby and Private Pilkill delivered to Lieutenant Donovan, on Governor's Island, the message from General Miles, who started it from Washington, Sunday, at 7 o'clock ill the morning. The roads were execrable, the riders say, and it was often almost impossible to remain in the seat. Each rider carried ten rounds of ammunition and the regulation army pistol. The uniform consisted of a blouse, campaign hat, gauntlet. gloves and bloomers. The race was suggested by General Miles, who is making severe tests of the bicycle in the hopes of having it generally adopted in the army. It would have been difficult to have selected a harder ride than was taken by these men, and the wheels, in each instance, stood up remarkably welI. Hi- OTannfactnre of Lead Pencns. The Monde Economique. quoting from a work recently issued by Ernest Faber on the manufacture of lead pencils, published on the occasion of the business of Johann Faber, of Nuremberg, being turned into a limited company, says that there are twenty-six manufactories of lead pencils in Bavaria, twenty-three of which are at Nuremberg. These employ 9_000 or 10,000 workmen, and turn out 4,400,000 lead pencils every week. In the above number of workmen are not included turners, boxmakers, etc. The factory of Johann Faber alone turns out 1,280,000 pencils per week. The protective customs duties of the United States prohibit the importation of cheap pencils, and this country itself turns ont almost as many pencils as all the Bavarian factories put together. The best cedar wood of the States (Cedrus virginiana) will soon be exhausted, but at present, having the monopoly of internal production, a considerable amount is exported to India, Mexico, Japan, and Australia, at extraordinarily low prices. The duties in Italy (100 lire per 100 kilogrammes), in France (180 to 300 francs per 100 kilogrammes), and in Russia (35 copecks per pound) are also hindrances to importation. In France, it is stated that schools and government offices, and even railway companies, are forbidden to buy German pencils. In the United States excellent lead pencils are now being made of paper, which is wound spirally upon the lead. m Tile Black.mltll. In our description of this celebrated painting, in our last week's issue, we regret to note that the address of Mr. F. E. Galbraith, the owner of the painting, was omitted. The picture can now be seen at No. 19 West Twenty-fourth Street, New York, where we understand it is to remain for some time. Hair 'Worms and Their Hosis. BY HARRT MOORE. At Betchworth, Surrey, just where the road crosses the River Mole, I picked up a specimen of Pterotichus madidus, Fab., from which, upon being placed in the cyanide bottle, a Gordius aquaticus, L., endeavored to escape. About three inches of it extrude, and, judging by its girth, an equal or greater length remains inside, yet the abdomen of the beetle is but nine millimeters in length. Nearly every observer of the slighte8t experience has some acquaintance with hair worms, even if it is only a hazy recollection of the horse hair legend of his schooldays. Numerous notes are scattered through the early volumes of Science Gossip and a further one upon the variety of the hosts Gordius infests may not be unacceptable. The family Nematoidse, to which the Gordiacese belong, contains many species of more than ordinary interest, first on account of their curious cycle of development, and then their value in the economy of nature, for not only are they in a measure beneficial in checking over-production in certain insects. but more or less dangerous when introduced into the human system. Their life history may be briefly described as follows : The eggs are laid in long strings ; upon hatching, the young larva bores through the membrane, and for a short period lives a free aquatic Iife. .1t then becomes parasitic upon various fly larvse, etc.; these hosts in their turn are devoured by other creatures, and the worms become incepted in their intestines, where .they remain some months, finally making their way into the intestinal cavity and escaping per ano in due course. It is rather singular, however, that, whereas hair worms are most commonly found infesting beetles in England, they prefer the orthoptera (grasshoppers and allied insects) in America. In both countries spiders have been noted as hosts, in America the human being, and an instance has come under my own notice where there was strong presumptive evidence the worm had been voided by a sparrow. Various writers cite fishes and frogs, and several mention caterpillars, but the parasites observed in lepidopter-ous larvse probably belonged to the allied genus Mer-mis. In America. Mermis acuminata, Leidy, has been observed in the larvse of the codJin moth (Carpocapsa pomonella, L.) and a similar parasite has been seen in larvse by several of our London workers. In enumerating the hosts of Gordius aquaticus, the common' European hair worm, several difficulties arise, for whereas, as I have already mentioned, carnivorous beetles are chiefly infested this side of the Atlantic, the observers do not always seem to have determined their species. Several references of this surt will be found in Science Gossip (vol. i, page 198, vol. xii, page 71, vol. xv, page 381, etc.) If any of our present readers can furnish something more definite, we shall be able to get along with our Hst. I have come across 110 mention of coleoptera being infested in America, in any note to which I have access; but the following are some of the authenticated instances among the orthoptera: G. aquaticus has been found in the cricket (Gryllus neglectus) and in Acheta abbreviatus, Servillethe short winged field cricket foun'd in woods beneath logs and stones; Gordius robustus, Leidy, infests Stenopelmata fasciata, Thomas, one of the stone or camel crickets usually found beneath stones and along the margins of woodland streams and logs, and in damp woods (Blatchley), and Orchelimum gracile, a grasshopper confined to low moist meadows; A. Gordius (species f), eight and a half inches long, has been taken from a pupa of Xipbidium ensiferum, Scudder, whose perfect body measures but half an inch in length. The life history of this orthopteron is of exceptional interest, the ova being deposited from several up to one hundred and seventy "in the turnip-shaped galls produced by a small fly belonging to the Cecidomyidse on certain species of willow (Salix cordata, etc.)" I have now but to mention Caloptenus spretus, Thomas, the Rocky Mountain locust, which is infested with G. aquaticus, Linn., and G. varius. Leidy, although repeated dissections by various American observers (Riley, Whitman, ere.) have shown that not more than a small percentage of the locusts are infested, yet when we consider the loss incurred annually in the United States from locusts alone is estimated at 8,000,000, anything which tends to mitigate the plague becomes of importance. The question, How are we to account for the presence of these aquatic parasites inside terrestrial insects ? upon consideration, isnotofeasy solution. Of course they are introduced with their food while in a minute immature state, but whether as ova or larvse I think there is room for discussion. It will be niticed all the insects mentioned are associated with damp places that are more or less subjected to floods ; but I don't think that sufficient reason for believing they have all fed upon the various aquatic fly larvse in which the hair worm larvse are said to pass their first period of larval life, though in thecase of grasshoppers Packard thinks they swallow them as larvie. I am inclined to believe there are several points in the life history of these parasites yet to be cleared up; perhaps some of our microscopists can elucidate them.Sclence Gossip. Arcllmologl_1 Dl.coverles. Another ancient Greek hymn set to music, recalliug the discovery made in the latter part of 1893 (vol. iii, page 866, of Current History, published by Garret-son Cox & Company, Buffalo, N. Y.), has been brought to light by the French excavations at Delphi. It is inscribed on two large slabs of stone, which have been unearthed in the building described by Pausanias as the " Treasury of the Athenians." The find of 1893 included fourteen fragments of various sizes, four of which were distinguished from the others by a difference in the notation of the music. These four were introduced to the public last year as the "Hymn to Apollo" (vol. iv, page 251). The latter find includes another large fragment, to which the remaining ten of the first discovery can be adjusted, thus giving us a second hymn. The decipherment and transcription of the words and music have, as before, been intrusted to MM. Henri Weil and Theodore Rein ach. The purport of both the hymns is substantially the same. After an invocation of the Muses, the poet gives valious legends of Apollo's life and works, ending with the slaughter of the Gauls at Delphi in 279 B. C.; and then implores the god's protection for Delphi and Athens and the government at Rome. The date is, therefore, after 146 B.C., when the Romans took possession of Greece. Apart from the music, the hymns are not particularly interesting." The duration of the musical notes is indicated by the syllables that were sung with thelll. Thus, for example, where three notes are attached to a word of one long syllable followed by two short syllables, they an-s wer roughly to a crochet followed by two quavers. The pitch of the notes is indicated by various letters of the alphabet. In the first hymn the letters were those that the Greeks prescribed for use with voices ; but in this second hymn they are those that were prescribed for use with instruments. As the Delphians would not likely have written down the accompaniment and omitted the song itself, it is supposed that the instruments and voices were here in unison. A discovery of importance for the history of early Christian literature is credited to Dr. Karl Schmidt, of Cairo, Egypt. In the library of the cloister of Ackmim the same library in which the Gospel and the Apocalypse of Peter and Apocalypse of Elijah were found Dr. Schmidt recently came across an old Coptic manuscript containing a record of conversations between Christ and his disciples. Both the beginning and the conclusion have been lost through mutilation of the manuscript. The chief subject of conversation is the resurrection of Christ, which is reported in detail and in such a manner as to combine the narratives of the four gospels. The object of the writing is to warn the reader against unbelief, especially gnosticism. There is a long discussion of the resurrection of the body. The work shows itself to be an apocryphal missive of the apostles to the congregations, and reveals the congregational orthodoxy in the early church. Like the Apocalypse of Peter, it shows also that the church was not always able to resist the telllPtation of following the gnostic trend of thought. Its date, approximately, is 160 A.D. III The Pasteur Institute'. Farm. The New York Therapeutic Review says that a farm of about 200 acres of land, in the vicinity of Tuxedo Park, New York, one hour's ride from the city, has been purchased for use as an experimental station for the New York Pasteur Institute. The farm, which is already provided with ten cows and the antitoxin horses and mules of the institute, will receive in addition many donkeys, goats, sheep, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc., for which especial barns are now being built, and also a laboratory for the preparation of the antitoxic serums, vaccine virus and other biological products. Research will be conducted there upon infectious diseases of animals as well as of man. The extensive character of the work done at the institute rendered indispensable the establishment of this experimental station. Synthetic Formation of a New Ketonlc ACid. The compound in question has been obtained by the action of camphoric anhydride upon benzine in presence of aluminum chloride. Its composition is CIIH..O.. It forms white crystals of a nacreous luster which melt at 135137 and boil at 320 at a pressure of 760 mm. They are almost insoluble in water, sparingly insoluble in ligroine, but readily soluble in acetic acid. alcohol, ether, benzine, chloroform, and carbon disulphide. The author has formed and examined its ammonium, barium, silver, copper, cobalt, nickel. zinc, and lead salts. He has also obtained its ethylic and methylic ethers, its anhydride, amide, and hydra-zide.E. Burker.
This article was originally published with the title "New York the Birthplace of Ocean Steam Navigation" in Scientific American 73, 25, 386-387 (December 1895)