The annexed engravings are views of a loom invented by John Gledhill, of this city, for weaving haircloth by power, an invention which is as valuable for the weaving of hair cloth as the power loom for the weaving of cotton cloth. Figure I is a front elevation ; ligure 2 is a longitudinal vertical section ; figure 3 is a cross sectional view of a double trough containing the hair for the weft; figure 4 is a side view of certain parts of the same to illustrate a part named the " automatic server," and figure 0 is a front view of the nippers which draw the hairs that form the weft, through the shed of the warp. The same letters refer to like parts on all the figures. Hair cloth is composed of a warp of linen threads, the weft being hair. As each hair is like a single thread, and. has ends of unequal thickness, it (the cloth) has never been woven heretofore but by handthe line end of one hair is drawn through to match at the selvedge with the thick end of the preceding hair. It will easily be seen that such s. mode of weaving hair cloth is exceedingly expensive and tedious. As the hairs are all like single threadsone hair for each shota formidable difficulty stood in the way of weaving such cloth by continual action as in the power cotton loom, where the thread is continuous on a cope, and is shot off in continuous lines. Mr. Gledhill has in a very in-jenious manner surmounted every difficulty, and produced a loom for this purpose which loes honor to his inventive faculties, and cre-lit to his perseverance. There are also some mprovements on this loom, which are appli-:able to all other looms for weaving cloth. A is the frame ; B is the crank shaft hav-ng the main driving pulley on it; C is the s larness shaftthe one on which the cams are j( ecured for working the treddles; D is the ay; these parts and the yarn and cloth rol- y ers are the same as those in the common ower loom. The arrangement ior trancmif- u ing motion from the crank shaft, B, to the -y ay, D, is best shown in figure 2, and embra- es an improvement applicable to all looms, e] iz,, a mode of keeping the shed open for the >assing of the shuttle or feeder with the weft , hread, as long a period as possible during ivery revolution of the crank shaft, B. The nain connecting rod is represented by E, vhich is the longest part, and is attached to t] he lay by a pivot, a ; F is a link which cori-lects the crank with E, by a pivot, 6, which ierves also to connect the radius rod, G, vhich works on the fixed centre pin, b'. The novement given to the lay by this arrange-lent is the full throw ot the crank, the effect ,f the link and radius rod being to increase he speed during the forward portion of the troke, ard to decrease it during the back-vard portion of it, and thus keeps it longer n a backward position for the purpose stated. The loom represented requires only two eaves of harness, but that is sufficient to how an improvement in the harness motion, vhich is adapted for all cloth looms. Each eat is suspended at the extremity of two :ords d d',of which d is attached to the right land end of both leaves, and d' to the oppo-ite end ; the said cords passing over pulleys, 1 H H', which work at the back of the top ail, I, of the frame, and around the pulley, J, vhose axle is in the upper end of the rod, K, vhich works vertically in guides, c e, outside ;he frame. The rod, K, has a spiral spring, e] ipplied to it, to draw it downwards. The (] rattoms of the leaves of the harness are at- w ached to treddles, L L. which are moved by \z :ams, M M, on shaft, C, in a well known w vay. One harness is always caused to rise ft >y cords, and d', when the other is depress- 0| ;d by the treddles, and thus both are balanced g] vhile a proper tension is preserved on each a] >y the action of the spring, in drawing JJ-lown the pulleys perfectly steady, and thus a j; nest excellent system oi harness balancing is ft :arried out. These two combinations and ; rrangements of machinery belonging to this w oom are adapted to other looms ; we will ft low describe the entire new arrangement* D- parts, and combinations for weaving hair cloth by this loom. The line passing over the rollers behind the lay represents the warp; the quadrangle representing the shed or opening of the yarn of the warp by the heddles or harness to allow I the hairs to be drawn through; M' is a hopper for containing the hairs each by itself standing in water; this hopper has two compartments, one for containing hairs with their thickest ends uppermost; the other containing hair with the smallest ends uppermost. ane quarter of a revolution, it being prevented from turning further by a spring bearing :>iece, m, which is forced against the back iide by a spiral spring, m', the spring yielding :o the operation of hook, I, but preventing the lead being turned accidentally. On each of :he four sides of head, P, there is a serving look, M, made of a curved piece of steel se- -shaped notch cut on its outer end. These looks require to be alternately at opposite >nds of the hairs, their notches being oppo-ite the centres of the troughs, g g, of the lopper. Every time the lay recedes after a >eat up, the hook, 6, turns the head, P, and me of the serving hooks, TO, takes a single lair in its notch, and draws it forward from he hopper, M', to such a position that a pair md of the lower rod, Q, is rigidly attached to [though it may be adjustable on) a block, S, vhich is capable of sliding on the sole of the ay. The right hand end of the upper rod vorks freely through a guide, attached to he block, S, and is connected near the point if the jaw by a radius link, r. It has a spring, , coiled round it within the guide, q, which ,lways tends to close it, and on its back side here is a work stud, (, projecting from it. The nippers are caused to pass qui'kly hrough the open shed while the lay is finish-ng its backward motion, and grip the hair, v vhich is held in readiness by the server, and hen return with it through the open warp, >y a transverse motion given to block, S, by One hair is taken from each bunch alternately, so as to lay a thick and fine end alternately together for the weft. This hopper is attached to the left hand of the loom, and there are two troughs, g g, arranged parallel with each other side by side, as shown in figure 3. A narrow slit is made transversely across the bottoms of both, and the ends of the hairs extend from the hopper, M',into these troughs protruding through, to be caught, as we shall' Bxplain, by the automatic feeder. A cord,! ', is attached to the frame at the side of the J of nippers will seize it, and draw it through the weft thread. For socre kinds of work, it may be necessary to take t wo or more hairs at a time, and for this purpose, the serving: hooks can be made with two or more notches, but to take one hair at once, the notch of. the hook must be made of a size to take in no more. These hooks never fail, as they re-' pecially as the end of each hair is prepared to] effectually accomplish this object. The nippers by which the hairs are pulled-through the warp consist of two long rods,; Q R, figure 5, terminating in jaws, op; these1 bars must be long enough to extend clear through the warp, and leave the jaws protru-, ding on one side, and a considerable portion of their length on the other. The right hand revolving cam, T, on the harness shaft acting j upon the horizontal vibrating lever, U, which operates the picker staff, V, to which is connected an arm, , attached to the nippers, and , which works them exactly like the power loom picker staff. While the nippers are passing through the shed to fetch the filling hair, they are kept closed by a spring, s, until i the points of the jaws have passed through the shed, and have arrived opposite the server, when the stud, t, comes in contact with the right hand sword on the lay, or a suitable stop, which holds the upper part of the nippers back, raising it by the radius link, r, fig. 5. The jaws of the nippers being thus open-ed, a hair is received between them, and I :- troughs, and passes through the slit, It, aboi - the bunches of hair, and has a weight, N, su - pended to it, which keeps the hair tight e the trough. ft Attached to the loom breast beam is tr . j arm, 0, which carries the automatic servei e i this arm is adjustable back, forth, and side - ways ; P is a square head pivoted at the sid s of the arm, and has on its face four studs, I 1 one of which is caught and acted upon by , j hook, I (attached to the lay) every time th : lay recedes, in such a manner as to perforr I when the return stroke is about to commence: the upper jaw, p, descends and takes a hair from the serving hook, embracing it firmly and carrying it through the warp. The lay is then beat up. and a shot of weft completed. The nippers have a forward and back motion for one shot of weft. A spring drag is secured to the loom to tion of the liippers. In this loom, one inch of hair lost in the hand loom every shot, is saved, which amounts to a great deal in the length ot a web. The operations we have described by this loom, will show that the useful results obtained are designed to affect an entire revolution in the manufacture of hair cloth. Measures have been taken to secure a patent, and as the invention is quite a novel one, the claims are extensive.
This article was originally published with the title "Power Loom for Weaving Hair Cloth" in Scientific American 8, 40, 316 (June 1853)