At the Freiberg mines, which are nearly the.oldest in Germany, they have made a most lucrative discovery. In a mine which has been profitably worked for the last 120 years, large lumps of metallic silver have been found, each weighing from 3 to 12 pounds; the largest lump weighed 60 pounds, and was in the form of a side of bacon. This would seem to be a reward for scientific mining, as these mines are worked entirely on the results — of scientific investigation conducted by the professors of the mining school in that place. Patent Claims Issued from the United States Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING JTTLT 13, 1858. [Reported officially for the Scientific American.] KNITTING MACHINES—Nelson P. Aiken, of Troy, N. .: I am aware that it is not new to use abelt-ship-ing apparatus in a knitting machine, to rnove the belt orn the driving to the loose pulley, when the yarn peaks or gives out, and therefore I do not claim broad-r this as my invention. But I claim the arrangement of the shipper or belt-lifter, G, in the manner substantially as described, nd in combination with the movable stop, H, lever, [, and sliding bar, K. when controlled by a sinker heel, or by any wheel gearing with and moved by the eedles, for the purpose set forth. [A notice of this improvement will be found in anther column.] SPOKE-SHAVE—Leonard Bailey, of Winchester, Mass.: claim the improved spoke-shave, as constructed with —s bearing surface in front of its cutter, applied to the ;ock by means of a lever having an adjusting screw, r its equivalent, or a screw and a spring applied to it, ) as to enable the said bearing surface to be moved ith respect to the cutter and the bearing surface in ear thereof, substantially in manner as described. I also claim the arrangement and application of a rotecting cavity or chamber within the lever, and to le spring thereof, in mannerand for the purposes set jrth. KETTLES FOR RENDERING LARD—John J. Bate, of trooklyn, N. Y.: I claim providing a means of com-mnication between the exterior and interior of the eater, C, by the apertures, D D\ so that the contents f the kettle and the heater can communicate with ach other, as and for the purpose set forth. SPRING PULLEY FOR WINDOW SASHES—Dana Bick-ord, of Westerly, R. I.: I do not claim either of these levices separately. But 1 claim the combination of the friction wheel or ts equivalent, and the bearings of the pulley with the ip, as described, in connection with other parts of the. pring balance. MACHINES FOR CUTTING PAPER—Milton B. Bigelow, —f Boston, Mass.: I do not confine myself to the precise nechanical devices described, as they are susceptible if various modifications. It is very obvious, for instance, that V-shaped rails niffht be employed for sustaining and directing the liding carriage and cuttin'g-board in their movements ; tlso that a short shaft with a crank and pinion on it, night be attached to the frame, said pinion being made o engage in a gear wheel affixed to the rock shaft, O, or the purpose of moving the cutting board and pa-ier. But I claim the described mechanisnij or any other tspentially the same, by means of which the cutting joard is prevented from moving in any other direction ,han a straight line, in its horizontal motions, said me-:hanism convicting of the guide rails y, y, and the iliding carriage, v v, constructed and operating in the nanner substantially as and for the purpose speci-ied. I alao claim actuating the sliding carriage, v v, and vith it the cutting board, x, by means of the mechan-sm described, or any other essentially the same, said nechanism consisting of the levers, q and r, the rock shaft, o, and the straight lever, p, connected and opera-ing in the manner substantially as and for the purpose ipecified. DOOR PLATES—Jeremy W. Bliss, of Hartford, Conn.: [ claim the perforated door plate, A B, bell arrangement, I J K P N O M, constructed and arranged to secure the three-fold object, substantially in the manner ind for the purpose as described. MACHINES FOR HULLING RICE—Joseph S. Bossard, of 3umterville, S. C: I claim the employment or use of the arms, b b d, attached radially to the rotating shafts E, in connection with the projections, c c d, on the pestle shafts, C, the parts being arranged to operate as and for the purpose set forth. [This is an improvement in that class of machines for cleaning and hulling rice in which pestles or pounders are used tor effecting the purpose. The invention consists in a novel arrangement of arms attached to a horizontal rotating shaft for elevating the pestles, whereby the pestles or pounders are elevated the requisite distance by comparatively short arms, and consequently with a corresponding diminution of power.] MACHINES FOR DRESSING HIDES RND LEATHER—John R. Bumgarner and Lyman White, of Davenport, Iowa: We claim, first. The combination, by means substantially as specified, of two carriages, B D, moving at right-ancles to each other, one having an intermittent longitudinal motion, and serving to feed the hides or skins to the action of the dressing frames, and the other, Dt having a transverse reciprocating motion, and serving to carry and move the dressing frames across the hides or skins, as set forth. Second, The peculiar manner of constructing the intermittent carriage, B, in sections, and with lone and short clamps, c c, whereby hides or skins of different sizes can be clamped and distended on the same, substantially as and for the purposes net forth. Third, The automatic device, G, specified, for clearing the knives, x x, just after the completion of their movement from one edge of the hide or skin to the other, of all matter which may have accumulated on them, and which would be likely to clog their action, aa set forth. Fourth. The arrangement of the standards, qq q q, set screws, r r r r, levers, s s a a, cords, 11, and windlass shaft, u, Fubstantially .is and for the purposes set forth. Fifth, The combination of the windlass shaft, u, with the dressing frame carriage, by means of the ratchet movement, S T, and the projection, UIT, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. [This machine is designed for unhairing, fleshing, scraping, dressing, and finishing hides, these several operations being performed successively. The hides are clamped upon a table which has a gradual longitudinal movement, and are continuously operated by the unhairing, fleshing, scraping, and finishing frames, which reciprocate across it in a direction at right angles to the movement of the table. This, we believe, is the first machine which has been patented for performing the whole operation of converting hides into leather, and if it operates well in practice, will be a great labor-saving machine.] PEOPELLER FOR CANAL BOATS—Abner Burbank, of Buffalo, N. Y.: I claim a propeller and shaft, movable in a longitudinal direction, in combination with a rudder having a notch or recess therein, to receive the propeller, and for the purposes and substantially as set forth. ROOKING CHAIR—Isaac P. Carrier, of South Glasen-bury, Conn.: I claim the arrangement of the frame or armn, E, rod, F, springs, stud, H, and the pin, c, holes, C, substantially in the manner and for the purposes as described. MACHINE FOR CUTTING BARREL HEADS—A. H. Cro-zier, of Oswego. N. Y.: I claim first, The disk, M, constructed anrl operated as described. Second, The method described of connecting the saw and cutter, so that both are controlled by the same winch or lever, substantially as specified. Third, Attaching the saw to a sliding stock, as and for the purpose described. BUSTLES AND SKIRTS—Handel N. Daggett, of Attle-boro, Mass. : I wish it distinctly understood that I lay no clafm to the invention of the adjusting cord, as applied to a bustle or a skirt. But I claim the improvement or combination of the back strut with the bustle or skirt and the adjusting lacing, such being applied and made to operate aa and for the purpose specified. TOOL FOR CUTTING CYLINDRICAL OR TAPERING STICKS—George Davies, of Duquesne, Pa.: I claim the combination of the cylindrical stock, a, adjustable block, K, and bit, F, constructed and arranged as described, forming an improved tool for cutting round or tapered sticks for handles, c. FORCE PUMPS FOR FIRE ENGINES—John N. Dennis-son, of Newark, N. J.: I claim increasing the capacity of the pumps of fire engines near the end of the stroke, by the expedients described, or their equivalents. CLOTHES'-DRYING APPARATUS—Olonzo R. Dinsmoor, of Auburn, N. H.: I claim the combination of the endless clothes'-line, the sheltering shed or building, and the stretching apparatus, the whole being made to operate substantially as specified. I also claim combining one or more travelers, K, with the endless clothes'-line applied to a building, and a stretching apparatus, and constructed so as to operate essentially as described. METALLIC HUB FOB CARRIAGE WHEELS—Nathaniel T. Kdson, of New Orleans, La. : I claim, first, The cone, H, when made and applied in the manner substantially as specified. Second, The oil chamber, 5, in combination with one or more orifices, 4, when formed on the outside of the box by means of a nut, substantially as represented- Third, The combination of the oil cup, B, with the cone, H, for the purposes specified. Fourth, I claim the chamber, 5, substantially as described, in combination with the outer cup, Bt for the purposes specified. SAWING MACHINES—Henry Featherstone and Peter Engman, of New Orleans, La.: We claim, first, The lateral movement of the saw, as represented. Second, The suspension guides, with their cups and balls, as applied here, to guide the saw and its connections witli the saw shaft. Third, The back-bone rack connecting the truck. Fourth, The truck and dog, with their movement, by means of the sector and rack, all as shown. RAILROAD CAR BOX CASES AND PEDESTALS—Jacob C. Grisendorff, of Cincinnati, Ohio. I claim the employment of the lugs, C C, formed on box case D, when used in connection with the notches, b b, (two or more) formed in the pedestal, E, substantially as described, for the purpose of readily detaching or removing the box from the axle, yet retaining the box case in a proper position in the jaws of the pedestal, in the manner set forth. WASHING MACHINE—B. F. Ghormley, of New Frank-ford, Ind.: I claim the combination and arrangement of the fluted and grooved roller, B, and the cords, a a, and roller, C, with the hinged washboard, D, springs, c c, and temper screws, d d, all being operated and constructed in the manner and for the purpose fully described. TRAPS FOR ANIMALS—Samuel Gibson, of Martic Township, Pa.: I do not claim the tilting floor and parts separately. But I claim the chambered box, wire drop cage, and tilting bottom, when combined and operated substantially as set forth. PRINTING PRESSES—George P. Gordon, of New York City: 1 claim, first, One or more sets of gripers or nippers, independent in themselves, -which shall revolve upon their axes, and carry the sheet from its point of feeding to its place of deposit, whether operated in the precise manner described, or in some equivalent way. Second, I claim the "stop," or its equivalent, for holding the said gripers, or their equivalent, in tne desired position, for the purpose of insuring an exact and regular feeding, registering, and delivering of the sheet as fully set forth. Third, I claim one or more sets of gripers, (which revolve upon their axes) having a movable base, with fingers to close upon said base, and hold the sheet, whether constructed in this precise manner, or in some equivalent way, to produce a like result. Fourth, I claim the combined action of said gripers and the vibrating springs, strips or .fri3ket, for the purpose of conveying the sheet to, and receiving and holding it in the proper position for the reception of the impression, and insuring its proper delivery after it shall have been printed. Fifth, I claim the vibrating double cam for throwing off and on the impression. Sixth, I claim two or more distributing rollers, having a lateral motion upon a main distributor, which shall move independent of, and in opposite direction to each other, and thus alternately cross and recross each other's distribution, for the purpose of giving an uniform inking. Seventh, I claim the relative arrangement of the feed table, the fly board, the platen and the bed, substantially as described, in combination with the revolving gripers. Eighth, I claim the two distributions given to the inking rollers upon one cylinder for each impression, (heretofore patented by me) in combination with the rotating reciprocating bed with its spring extensions, as fully set forth. Ninth, I claim the fly board with its adjustable ledge in eombination with the gripers, to insure the even piling of the sheet, whatever its size may be. FIRE ESCAPE LADDER—Joseph H. Grimsley, of New Lexington, Ohio : I claim the wheels turning on the axles at the ends of the wings or steps, for the purpose set forth, of providing a space between the ladder and wall for the feet and hands of the individual when descending, to enable and aid the ladder to reach the ground, said wheels being placed at the axle at the ends of the rungs, especially for this important purpose and object, viz., that with the wheels so placed it ia of no consequence or difference which side of the ladder is uppermost when thrown out, making no difference which side of the same rests against the wall. Also the straps, which, placed substantially as set forth, combined with a ladder of the necessary strength and weight, aa small, enables a person of ordinary strength to rescue the aged, infirm, young, and those too timid to descend alone, by lowering them to the ground by the hand. SHINGLE MACHINE—Erastus Hall and Joel F. Stewart, of East Randolph, N. Y.: We claim the rack, J, pivoted to the carriage, I, in combination with the rod, L, plate, F, pinion, u, and lever, G, with weight, H, attached, the parts being arranged as shown, for the purpose of feeding the holt to the saw and gigging back the same automatically, as shown. We also claim setting the bolt of the saw by means of the bar, M, provided with the rack, k k, operated by the backward movement of the carriage through the medium of the wipers, m m, and boss or hub, O, on shaft, N, provided with spiral ledges, n, and the spring catch, p, the parts being arranged to operate conjointly and automatically with the carriage, I, as described. [A full description of this invention will he found on another page.] METHOD OF COPPERING THE INTERIOR OF SHIPS, TO PROTECT THEM FROM LIGHTNING—Roswell W. Haskins, of Buffalo, N. Y.: I make no claim to lightning rods in any mode in which they are now used. But I claim protecting vessels from lightning by means of metal linings, arranged substantially as described. CHURNS—James Hatfield, of Falmouth, Ind., and Henry M. Goldsmith, of Burlington, Iowa: We claim, first, The manner and form of inserting the adjustable brakes, as described and shown. Second, The basin or reservoir lid, with the glass slide attachment as described and shown. Third, The quarter circle wings or dashers at each end of the shaft, in the form and position described and shown. TAILORS1 SHEARS—Bachus Heinisch, of Newark, N. J. : I do not claim elongating the upper blade of a tailors1 shears, by means of an eccentric pivot. Neither do I claim a stop set in one blade, and working in a curved slot in the other, as that is fully shown in Joseph Phares' improvement on tailors' shears, patented September 12,1854. But I claim the oblique rectilinear slot, C, ia the elongated shank of the lower blade, A, in combination with the fulcrum, D, and lever, B, connecting the shanks, the whole constructed and operating substantially as and for the purposes set forth. PUMP—GeorgeHibsch, of Buffalo, N. Y.: I claim the two screw wheels, B B, constructed and operated as set forth, in combination with the bands, JJ C, when arranged in relation to the cylinder, A, in the manner and for the purposes described. MACHINE PULLEYS—Caleb S. Hunt, of Bridgewater, Mass.: I claim the construction and use of machine pulleys with the bearing or band surface made of cork, as described. SHOEMAKER'S EDGE PLANES—Freeman Killbrith, of Pembroke, Mass.: I claim the attachment to the edge now in use, and known as Dunham's patent, of the movable guard, C, with its screw, e, the guard being movable to and from the edge of knife D, and sliding on the face of the shank, B, and also the attachment to the shank, B, of the knife, D, with its screw, f, working in a slot, and raised or lowered to any desired gage for paring soles, and which knife, D, can be wholly removed from the shank, B, by unscrewing the screw, f, and so ground or sharpened, and be replaced by a new knife if necessary. ADJUSTABLE PILE-DRIVER—T. W. Loveless, of Corning, N. Y.: I claim the frames, D 15, connected by pivots or joints, c, and retained in desired positions by desired positions by the perforated segment plate, 1, and pin, d, in combination with the bolster, H, and bars, h h, attached to the frame, D, as shown, aud secured in desired position by the racks, J J, serrated plates, O, and bar or clamp, the whole being arranged substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [A description of this invention will be found on another page.] PAPER STOCK FROM REEDS—Henry Lowe, of Baltimore, Md.: I claim the prepared reed fiber, or new article of manufacture above described, as a substitute for rags, ropes, and other fibrous materials, for the manufacture of paper, said reed fiber or paper stock, being prepared substantially its set forth. MACHINES FOB DRILLING AND SPLITTING STONES— John H. Lyon, of Baltimore, Md.: I claim the hammer stock, M, and hammers, N, arranged and operated as described, in combination with the drills, D, and removable slugs, K, for drilling and splitting blocks of stone, the whole being constructed and arranged for joint .operation in the manner and for the purposes set forth. CARRTAGE FOR SAWING MACHINES—A. C. Miller, of Morgantown, Va.: I claim arranging the head blocks in long mortises in the side pieces, F F, and connecting the outer ends of said head-blocks by overlapping arms or levers, HH, furnished with adjusting holes or an adjusting screw, so that any length of holt within the capacity of the saw may he held and operated therein as set forth and described. REAPING AND MOWING MACHINES—C. Moul, of Hanover, Pa.: I claim the combination of the truck frame, H, caster wheel, L, and lever, K, the whole being arranged and operated in the manner and for the purposes substantially as set forth. ESCAPEMENT OF WATCHES—Jacob Muma, of Hanover, Pa.: I claim the escapement, consisting of a single escape wheel, A, and two geared balances, B B, with cylinders or cylindrical segments, h h*, engaging with the said escape wheel or opposite sides of its axis, when said escape wheel, A, and balances, B B, with their segments, h h*, are arranged in relation to each other, with their axes in the same plane, and the gear of the said single escape wheel, A, with the segments, h h*, serves the double purpose of escape and of giving impulse to the balances, as specified. [A notice of this improvement will be found on another page.] BOAT PROPELLER—Mortimer Nelson, of New York City : I claim, first, The vertical buckets, when arranged so that they shall be capable of folding against the side of the propeller frame, whether turned on their axis to the right or left, in combination with a reversible stop, which will, after being adjusted, hold the buckets in a position for acting against the water during the time the engine piston is making a stroke to effect the propulsion of the boat, either back or forwards, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. Second, The arrangement of the buckets ou the inner side of one of the propeller frames, and on the outer side of the other, in combination with the supporting slides, constructed and arranged substantially us and for the purpose set fonh. [This invention consists in arranging two longitudinal propeller frames set with vertical paddles on each side of the boat. The frames have a longitudinal movement in opposite directions to one another alternately, and the paddles of one frame, as said frame is moving forward, opening and acting as a resistance to the water, and the paddles of the other frame closing and presenting no resistance as said frame is moving backward. By this arrangement no loss of power by back water is experienced, as there is no expenditure oi power in entering or leaving the water, as in the case of the common paddle wheel. The paddles are so arranged that they can be set to act as above stated, both when the boat is moving forward or backward, which is a result not heretofore successfully accomplished in side propellers. The invention is very ingenious, and we cannot see why it will not answer well for the purpose intended.] HEMP BRAKES—George M. Newell, of Lexington, Mo.: I am aware that straight slats, in a horizontally reciprocating frame, in combination with similar stationary slats, have been used previous to the date of my invention. Also that a reciprocating whipper has been used in combination with a reciprocating gate, and other reciprocating devices for breaking hemp. Such devices and combination of devices, therefore, I do not claim broadly. But I claim, first, Giving the slats of the pivoted frame a curve which is concentric with the axis on which the frame in which they hang reciprocates, and arranging sajdslats or swords so as to move in curved slots of stationary pillars as the frame reciprocates, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. Second, The arrangement in the manner specified, below the breaking swords or slots, of two sets of stationary beaters or whipping rods and two sets of recip- rocating beaters or rods, the latter being attached to pivoted rocking arms provided with curved slats, so that they shall reciprocate in the path of a vertical circle, and operate in combination with the stationary rods, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. [By shaping the swords or slats of the reciprocating gates, and giving them a circular reciprocating motion, as defined in the above claims, they have a positive downward action upon the hemp or flax both in their backward and forward motion, and thereby cause the same to be continuously drawn down from the hopper, and to be fed down through the machine without the aid of any auxiliary feed devices; and by arranging reciprocating whipping rods or beaters below the breakers, all the shoves are removed, and thus the perfect operation upon the hemp before it leaves the machine, is ensured. This appears to be a most excellent arrangement for breaking hemp, and we are informed from authority that it works well.] APPARATUS FOR CLEANING AND POLISHING COFFEE— William Newell, of Philadelphia, Pa.: I claim in combination with the cylinder which contains and furnishes heat to the coffee, the open wire diaphragms or partitions for furnishing rubbing surface, substantially as described. I also clnim in combination with the open wire rubbing surfaces, the flanges and heating tubes, as set forth. ENDLESS CHAINS FOR THRESHING MACHINES—Job E. Owens, Clark Lane, and E. G. Dyer, of Hamilton, O.: We claim a chain composed of two different kinds of malleable cast iron links, when constructed in all their parts, as represented, for all the purposes mentioned in the specification, and when the alternate links of chains are the duplicates of each other throughout the series, and the two kinds of links united in the manner and for the purposes set forth. MANUFACTURING KNIT GLOVES—James Pcatfield, of Ipswich, Mass. : I do not claim to be the inventor of a seamless knit glove, as such are knit by hand. But I claim the manufacture of seamless knitted gloves, by knitting the hand and the fingers and thumb separately, and uniting them in the manner substantially as described. [The object of this invention is to produce seamless knitted gloves by machinery. This is done by knitting the hand of a glove and the fingers and thumb separately, each in circular form, and consequently without scam, and uniting them by knitting them together by hand.] GOVERNOR FOR STEAM ENGINES—C. T. Porter, of New York City: I claim, first. In combination with arms and balls, or their equivalents, revolving at a much higher velocity than Vould be natural to them, considered as a conical pendulum, the employment of a counterpoise, applied substantially as described, and so proportioned in weight as to balance, or nearly so, the centrifugal force developed by the revolution of said arms and balls or their equivalents. Second, I claim so applying the counterpoise to the governor that its effective load shall be lessened as the governorrises, or as the balls and arms thereof or their equivalents expand, for the purpose of rendering it constant, or as nearly so as desired, relatively to the power of the governor to sustain it. Third, I claim the employment of the counterpoise applied to the governor in any manner substantially as specified, as a means of fixing or adjusting the exact speed of the engine, as described. [A full description of this improvement appears on page 3630 REFRiGERATOR-;-Henry Rehahn, of New York City I do not claim circulating the air through the ice, and through the refrigerating chamber, as that has hereto-tofore been done. But I claim, in combination with the ice-box and ventilator arranged near the top of the refrigerator, box, the centrally located cold air tube for carrying the cold air from said ice-box down to or near the bottom of the refrigerator, and admitting it into the refrigerating chamber, and in between the inner and outer cases, thence it ascends and escapes through the register, substantially as set iorth and described. MEDICATED VAPOR APPARATUS—Alex. F. Rose, of Brooklyn, N. Y. : I claim, first, The construction of the mask. D, with a marginal cushion, a single or double back as passages, substantially as described. Second, The construction of masks for encircling the neck or other part, in the manner substantially as represented in Figs. 3 and 4— that is to say, with a band of wire cloth or other sufficiently flexible, but yet sufficiently stiff material, a marginal cushion, g, a passage-box, H, and an enveloping cloth, I. of waterproof, the whole being combined substantially as described. [By this invention heat or cold fumes or vapors, medicated or otherwise, can be applied as remedial agents to any part of the body which may be the seat of pain or disease. The apparatus consists of a heater or cooler for heating or cooling air or gaseous or ffiriform body, or a generator for generating steam and other vapor or fume, and a pair of bellows and pipes connecting the bellows with a proper mouthpiece or mask to be directed or applied to any part of the body for the purpose of bringing hot or cold air, vapor, or fume, in contact with the body, to act as a remedial agent.] GAS GENERATORS—G. W. R. Seal, of Winchester, Va. : I do not claim the use of scraps of iron or of pebbles or pieces of stone ia a gas retort to form an extensive heating surface. But I claim the employment of a secondary movable diaphragm applied within the retort, so as to support a portion of the cellular packing, and to be capable of being raised and lowered with such portion of the packing, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [A retort divided into two chambers is employed, in one of which the substance to be converted into gas is made into vapor, and in the other the vapor is converted into permanent gas, by passing through a packing of cellular character, so that it comes in contact with a great amount of heating surface. The invention consists in thu employment of this cellular packing of shavings or scraps of copper or its alloys by whose superior conducting powers the vapors are more rapidly heated and decomposed than when pebbles or scraps of iron are employed to form cellular packing in the retorts. An extra diaphragm is also employed in the second chamber to support a portion of the packing, and it is movable to vary the depth of the packing to suit the various materials that may be employed to make the gas.] CHURN—N. H. Sherburne, of Campton, 111. : I disclaim the mere rotation of the tvro parts of the agitator in opposite directions, and also the construction of agitators with movable parts broadly considered. But I claim the combination of heads, H H1, slides, B, blades, C C, and opposite rotating shafts, S S', constructed, arranged and operating substantially as and for the purpose set forth. GRAIN CLEANING MACHINES—N. II. Sherburne, of * Campton, HI. : I claim the concentric and opposite 7 moving fans, G G, constructed, arranged and operating r substantially as described, in combination with the cor- \ rugated head of the upper screen, L, the whole operat-J, ing as specified. SOROLL-SAWIWG MAOHINE-E. SIrret, Jr., of Buffalo, N. Y. : I am aware that revolving cranks have been directly connected to the upper and lower ends of reciprocating saws, for the purpose of driving the saws without a frame or sash, but I am not aware that reciprocating bent levers or bell cranks have been employed and arranged as shown and described, for the purpose of operating the saw, and also allowing it to be kept perfectly strained while at work, and readily relaxed when it is to be removed from the machine. I claim, first, The bent levers or bell cranks, H I, attached to the crosBheads, R m, of the saw, K, and operated by the eccentrics, E F, or their equivalents. Second, Having the upper lever or bell crank, I, attached to an adjustable plate, c, operated byascrew, h, or its equivalent, for the purpose of readily and properly straining the saw and allowing the same to be relaxed and removed with facility from the machine. [This invention relates to an improvement in that class of sawing machines in which no saw frame or sash is employed, and which are generally kaown as muley saws. The invention consists in the peculiar manner of hanging and driving the saw, so that it may be readily strained and kept while in operation at a proper degree of tension, and readily removed from the machine when necessary.] ROLLING RAILWAY CHAIRS—J. H. Snyder, of Troy, N. Y. : I claim forming or turning the tip or lips. A, of the chairs, upon the collar or collars. O, oi' a roller, E, by means of another roller, D, substantially as set forth. BTTTTER COOLER—James H. Stimpson, of Baltimore, Md. : I do not claim, broadly, the placing of the ice above the butter. But I claim a3 an improved article of manufacture a butter cooler made substantially as shown and described, to wit, with an ice receptacle, D, suspended over the dish, B, in the manner and for the purposes set forth. [A notice of this improvement is given in another column.] ATTACHING SLEIGH RTTNNERB—Wm. W. St. John, of Lima, N. Y. ; I do not claim allowing motion to the hind runner at the bolsters, said runner being drawn along by a counectioa at its forward end. But I claim the combination of the T-formed Blide, 5, cap, 3, and joint, 4, for attaching the hind runner of sleighs to the body, when said runner is drawn by a connection to its forward end, substantially as and for the purposes specified. COTTON GINS—Joshua Tetlow, of Taunton, Mass. : I claim the rollers, B B, one or more, grooved a3 shown, namely, longitudinally and parallel with their shafts, and grooved also in a zig-zag manner in connection with the adjustable stationary plates, S, and vibrating plates, b, arranged to operate as and for tlie purpose set forth. [The gins in which this improvement is made are those such as are used for ginning Sea Island or long staple cotton, and the intention is to produce a machine which will gin long staple cotton more expeditiously, and at the same time work in a thorough manner without injuring the fiber in the least. Grooved rollers are used in connection with vibrating plates and adjustable feed boards, arranged so as to operate together and pro-dus tha effect desired.] APPARATUS AS AIDS IN EXTRACTING TEETH—Chas. C. Thomas, of Natchez, Miss. : I claim a dental instrument having the adjustments, substantially as stated and adaptable to the purposes specified. EARTHENWARK DISHES—Alson Vail and Tracy Vail, of Berlin, Wis. : We claim a new article of manufacture, to wit, a covered dish with an absorbent lining, perforated or unperforated, as specified, for the purposes set forth. [This invention consists in making dishes porous on their inner surface, so that the moisture shall be absorbed from hot eatables, and the same kept in a dry and palatable condition. To accomplish this result the dish is formed of some porous argillaceoussubstance and only glazed on its exterior, or if the dish is of china-ware it may be rendered capable of absorbing moisture by being lined with a porous perforated substance. We regard this as a capital improvement; H avoids the deposit of condensed vapor upon vegetables confined, and saves the same from becoming sweaty and having a watery taste.] REFRIGERATORS—Nathaniel Waterman, of Boston, Maes. : I claim the arrangement of the air supply and discharge pipes with respect to the case and its refrigerating chamber, in which arrangement the supply pipe or pipes are disposed within the refrigerating chamber, while the discharge pipe or pipes are disposed outside of the. same in manner as specified. I also claim the combination of a series of grooves or an auxiliary space or spaces, and a discharge pipe or their equivalents with the metallic bottom or lining of the refrigerating chamber, and arranged under the same and within the case or the stopping or bottom part of such case. I also claim the arrangement of a space, H, within the cover of the refrigerator, as described, and around the odor discharge pipe, G, the same being to operate in manner and for the purpose set forth. AUTOMATIC MECHANISM FOR OPERATING THE SURVEYOR'S GRAPHODOMETER—J. M. Wampler, of Baltimore, Md. : 1 claim the combination with a moving strip of paper, or other proper material, arranged on any suitable vehicle of automatic mechanism for taking and recording distances and courses or distances and levels, or distances courses and levels substantially ss described and shown. SMOKE STACK FOR STEAM VESSELS—Wm. Webster, of Jefferson county, Washington Territory : I claim, first. The arrangement of two or more pipes, D D D, c, within an outer shell, B, as described. Second, The application to a double shell smoke stackj of the registers, L L, c, as and for the purpose described. SAWMILL BLOCK—Hiram Wells, of Florence, Mass. : I claim operating the dog bar I, of the block C, by means of the lever, K, fitted in the underside of said bar, the ribbed plate, D, connected with the bar, F, by the obliquely slotted plate, E, and pin, b, the whole being arranged and applied to the carriage, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [This is an improvement on a former patent granted to this inventor, June 9,1857. In that invention the dogs of both the head and tail blocks were operated simultaneously by means of a rack bar connected to the dog bars by means of levers, racks, pawls, cM arranged so as to form a comparatively complicated device. The object of the present invention is to attain the same ends by a simpler arrangement of parts less liable to get out of repair, and more economical to construct] TRIPOD-HEAD FOR SUBVEVORB—Wm. J. Young, of — Philadelphia, Pa. : I claim constructing the head of a yw surveyor's tripod in such a manner that the portion to pi\ which the instrument and plumbline are attached mav MA be adjustable in any direction horizontally to the por-fiw ) tion to which the legs are jointed, when the usual Wn leveling screws serve the purpose of binding the two EgZportioiui of the head together after adjustment, asset Kp3 iorth and for the purpose specified. SSsS LEATHER SHAVING KNIFE—J. B, Wentworth, of Lynn, Mass. : I claim the described leather shaving knife, consisting of a stock, C, C, with a bevel only on one edge, extending beyond the center from Y to Z, and provided with screws, e, combined with a blade, D, having slots, d,operating as and for the purpose specified. SELF-DUMPING COAL BUCKET—John Wast, of Philadelphia, Pa. : I claim the employment of the handle, B B' B, attached by pivots below the center of gravity of the bucket, in combination with the sliding rod, G-H, and the spring bolt. L, or their equivalents, arranged and operating substantially as described. FLOOR CI.AMPB—H. C. Wight, of Worcester, Mass. : I do not claim, broadly, the employment or use of a toggle, for that is a well-known mechanical device. But I claim the toggle formed of the levers, C D, connected with a screw, B, which passes or works through a pivoted nut, c, in combination with the claw-plate, E, and head or jaw, G, attached respectively to the levers, C D, the whole being arranged and connected with the frame, A, substantially aa and for the purpose set forth. [In this invention a toggle is employed in connection with a power screw, claw plate and jaw or pressure plate, the whole being fitted or attached to a proper framing or support, BO as to form a powerful, portable and economical clamp suitable for laying floors, or other work in which clamps are usually employed.] BOOT TREES—A. J. Wisner. of Homer, N. Y. : I claim the combination of shaft, G, bevel wheels, W W, screw, H, nut, I, screw, F, and yoke, b, with the thin shaft, E, and hinged sole, D, the whole constructed and arranged for joint operation, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. DEVICE FOR SECURING LIGHTNING RODS—Victor Schrage, of Cincinnati, Ohio : I am aware of other attachments being made for the same purpose, and therefore do not broadly claim attaching and detaching rods after this manner. But I claim the spiral spring, d, as constructed, and arranged to the insulator, a, in the manner and with the means represented for the purposes described. RADIATOR FOR HEATING BUILDINGS, C, BY COMBUSTION OF GAS OR ALCOHOL—I. H. Chester, (assignor to Wm. A. Chester), of Cincinnati, Ohio: I claim the radiatorconstructed with acentral opening, C C, in its bottom to receive the flame and heated products of combustion from the burner, and with the surface of said bottom inclining downwards from said opening towards two openings, d d, at the ends and with the wire gauze cylinders or their equivalent, 11, k k, be tween the slides, by which means combined, provision is made for tne condensation and free escape of the water of condensation, together with such carbonic acid as maybe absorbed by it. [The principal object of this invention is to provide for the condensation within the radiator of the water evolved by the combustion of the gas or alcohol, and its escape therefrom, together with a considerable portion of the carbonic acid evolved, which is absorbed by the water, and at the same time to provide for the construction of the radiator in such a manner as to provide fpr the equal distribution of heat therein.] MANUFACTURING CHAIR BACKS—S. E. Foster, of Fitchburg, Mass., assignor to Walter Hey wood (Jhair Company : I claim the described rest, consisting of two jaws, which are moved an equal amount on each side of a vertical plane passing through the center of the cutters, as the thickness of the stuff varies in the manner and for the purpose substantially as set forth. ATMOSPHERIC REGULATOR FOR STOVES, FURNACES, c—B. Holly (assignor to himself, and J. T. Edwards) of Seneca Falls, N. Y. : I claim the employment of a pendulum or balance having a movable axis connected with the valve or damper, A, by the levers, C and D, or their equivalents, in such a manner that the gravitating force shall increase as the damper closes, and diminish as it opens, for the purpose of regulating the admission of air to the fuel, substantially in the manner set forth. I also claim the method of hanging the damper, A, by means of the convex pivot bearing, C, arm, f, and sliding pivot, d, substantially as as and for the purpose de-cribed. SPINNING FRAMES—Amasa Houghton, of Putnam. Conn., assignor to himself, E. D. Draper and George Draper, of Milford, Maaa. : I claim the application of the cap to the upright spindle and the holster so as to operate therewith, substantially in manner as specified. WATERWHEELS—D. K Kraatz, of Ephrata, Pa., assignor to himself and I. S. Roland, of Bareville, Pa. : I claim the perforated flanch, a', which closes the spaces, between the upper ends of the series of buckets, d d, when the perforations in the saidflanch are made to open into a close air chamber, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth. HAND STAMPS—Wm. Morse and John Hughes, ol Boston, Mass., assignors to G. H. Devereux, A. F. Devereux. O. W. Barrett and E. E. Barrett, of Salem, Mass. : We claim combining with the stamping mechanism, a cast off mechanism for discharging the lettei or article to be stamped from the bed or the cast of over the same. We also claim combining the pad or cushion, h, witl or arranging it directly upon the cast off or plate, K thereof, substantially aa specified. We also claim the combination foroperating the cas off, the same consisting of the arm, r, the tripper, n* the arm, the shaft, L, and the spring, k, the sami being arranged and made to act together essentially aa specified. MACHINES FOR CLEANING GRAIN—Wm. H. Orr (assignor to Wm. M. Griffiths), of Martin's Ferry, Ohio : I claim the application of the auxiliary shaft, K, constructed in the manner and employed i or the purpose described and set forth. COOLING CAR WHEELS—Robert Poole (assignor to himself and G. H. Hunt), of Baltimore, Md. :T claim the described process of regularly cooling car wheels, whereby all strain within the wheel is avoided, the chill uninjured, and the web of the wheel is without curve or corrugation, substantially as described. MACHINERY FOR POLISHING THREAD—Britton Richardson (assignor to himself and the Hay den Manufacturing Company), of Haydensville, Mass. : I claim the construction of the dressing and polishing rollers, with ribs, a a, covered with flannel, felt or material of similar character and arranged relatively to each other, substantially as described to produce elasticity of surface. [A notice of this improvement is given in another column] FURNACES FOR MANUFACTURING ZINC OXYD—Joseph Wharton, of Philadelphia, Pa., and Nathan Bartlett, of Bethlehem, Pa., assignors to Joseph Wharton, of Philadelphia, aforesaid : I claim, first, The construction and arrangement of the furnaces of double the usual length, without any separating end wall, and with a charging door to each extremity, in the manner and for the purposes set forth. Second, The construction and combined arrangement of the conduit, L L', the damper or valves, d and e\ and the chimneys, g g g, in the manner and for the purposes substantially as set foih. Third, The series of tweers, opening into the conduit, L L, arranged and operating as described. RE-I88UE8. SEWING MACHINES—John A. Ruckman (assignee of J. E. A. Gibbs),of Millpoint, Va. Dated June 2,1857— Ee-issued July 13,1858: First, In the single thread sewing machine, I claim a hook or looper, revolving in one direction only,being ao constructed as to make a series of chain stitches, when operating in connection with a a reciprocating needle. Secondly, I claim the peculiar construction, substan-stantially as described, of a revolving hook, whereby, while one loop is taken from the needle by the hook, spread, twisted and held in the path of the needle until another or fresh loop is taken, the former loop shall be released and drawn up during the retreat oi the needle. DESIGNS. BEDSTEADS—Hinrich Neidig, of New York City. Two ca3es. COOKING STOVES—E. J. Delany, of Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to H. E. Marsh, and Jos. Johnson, of Law-renceville, Pa. STOVES—N. S. Vedcler, of Troy, N, Y., assignor to G. W. Eddy, of Waterford, N. Y.
This article was originally published with the title "Profitable Mining" in Scientific American 13, 46, 361-363 (July 1858)