BRAKE AND HORSE HOLDER—G. B. Douglas, Sedalia, Mo.—This invention has for its object to furnish an improved brake, which shall be so constructed and arranged as to be self-locking, and at the same time serve as a horse holder for checking the horses should they start when left alone. SLED EUNNER.—G. W. Hatch, Parkman, Ohio.—This invention has for its object to furnish an improved sled or sleigh runner, which shall be cheaper in construction, stronger, and more durable than the runners constructed In the ordinary manner. CHURNING APPARATUS.—S. S. Allen, Belvidere, N. Y.—This invention has for its object to furnish an improved apparatus for operating a churn, which shall be so constructed and arranged as to do its work quickly and thoroughly, bringing the butter in a very short time. LOG CARRIER.—Calvin Taylor, Handsborongh, Miss.—This invention has or its object to furnish an improved machine for carrying logs, which shall be so constructed and arrangedlthat a much greater amount of timber may be carried with the same team than can be carried in any of the ordin_ ary modes. HEATER.—Michael Lehmer, Oregon, Mo.—This invention has for its object to furnish an improved heater, which shall be so constructed and arranged as to furnish a large amount of heating surface, so as to utilize all the heat from the products of combustion before they pass off into the chimney. FIRE GRATE.—George Williamson, Milwaukee, Wis.—This invention has or its object to improve the construction of fire grates, in such a way that when the grate is agitated, the ashes may be shaken down from above the entire surface of the grate.instead of being displaced only around the edges of the grate, as is the case with grates constructed in the ordinary manner. VALVE GEAR FOR HYDRAULIC PRESSES.—Thomas Harbottle, Brooklyr N. Y.—The object of this invention is to obtain a simple, and effective ai] tomatic valve gear for hydraulic presses, whereby the check valves wil close instantly and automatically at the end of each stroke of the pump and each of th relief valves will duly perform their respective function without affecting the operation of the other check valves Or relief valve connected with the saiae pump but different presses. LAMP.—Solomon P. Smith, Waterford, N. Y.—The objeet of this inventioi is to provide forpublic use, a lamp in which a blast of air is supplied to in tensify combustion, the parts which create and sustain the blast being s constructed as to operate without any of that disagreeable rattling an clattering that has heretofore prevented lamps constructed on the bias principle from coming into general use. VELOCIPEDE.—Hiram T. Metzgar, Salem Cross Eoads.Pa.—In this inven tion a novel method of propelling velocipedes is introduced, and the sev eral parts are adapted to practical operationin connection therewith. HORSE HAY FORK.—Samuel T. Nigh, Leitersburg, Md.—This inventioi consists in combining with the two tines of a herse hay fork, a certaii elastic curved box, and a certain central key rod, in such manner as tha the tines may be locked when spread apart to their fullest extent, so as tha one may serve as a handle for forcing the other into the hay. HORSE HAY EAKE.—S. P. Smith, Waterford, N. Y.—This invention re lates to that class of horse hay rakes, in which wooden teetb are employed and its object is to construct the rake in such a manner ,to render it more perfectly adjustable to the inequalities of the ground and the character o: the workthanheretofore. MULE SAW MILL.—L. Morrison and A. G. Harms, Allegheny City, Pa.—This invention relates to certain improvements in the manner of hanging and ad justing reciprocating saws, so that the same will operate and be regulated with ease and without any difficulty. The invention consists in providing for a lateral adjustment of the upper saw guides for the purpose of giving the saw mofre or less throw; also, in making the wrist on the lower saw buckle adjustable more or less far apart from the lower saw pivot. BUCKLE.—F. C. Eicher, Gilmer, Texas.—This invention relates to a new buckle, which does not require to be sewed to either of the straps which ii is to connect, and which will securely fasten and hold the said straps oi bands in any desired position. The invention consists in the use of a buckle which has four transverse slots, with teeth on the inner cross bars, and in providing a buckle with slotted end bars, that is to say, with horizontal apertures throughthe ends, through which the strap to be held is passed. METHOD OF PRODUCING FROM PRINTED PAPER NEW PLATES FOR RE-PRINTING.—Charles Vogt and Christian Vogt, New York city.—The object of this invention is to devise a method for producing printing plates from printed paper, so that by means of such blocks, oi plates, the design on the paper can be reproduced or reprinted on other paper or fabric. By this method, old, valuable, and difficult engravings, can, from single specimens, be transferred to metal plates and be copied with great accuracy. A new branch of industry will thus be established and the productions of renowned artists will become accessible to all. DOUGH EOLLING MACHINE.—H. Goodwin and C. H.Bennett,2d, South Berwick, Me.—This invention relates to improvements in apparatus for rolling dough into thin sheets for pie crust, and also laying it upon the tops of a pie or in a vessel, as may be required. ENVELOPE OPENER—W. H. Mantz, Centralia, 111.—This invention relates to a new instrument for opening envelopes and for removing letters therefrom. The invention consists of three plates, united by'a common pivot the two outer plates being furthermore connected by rivet or otherwise so that they cannot turn separately on the pivot, while the middle plate which carries the cutter can be swung out to allow the sharpening of the tool. The outer plates may be extended beyond the cutting plate to form a pair of clamps for grasping a letter and withdrawing it from an opened envelope. MONKEY WRENCH.—F. C. Eicher. Gilmer, Texas.—This invention relates to a new monkey wrench, which is operated by turning the handle, and has for its object to arrange as few parts in as simple a manner as possible, so that the device will be substantial and not apt to get out of repair. The Invention consists chiefly in swiveling the handle to theshankof the lower jaw, and in screwing it upon the screw shank of the upper jaw so that it will, when turned, cause the lower jaw to move longitudinally in the desired direction. The shank and body of the lower jaw are hollow and fit upon the polygonal upper part of the upper jaw shank, so that they cannot turn with the handle, but merely move longitudinally. BRICK MACHINES.—Asa Morgan, Cedar Bayou, Texas.—This invention relates to improvements in brick machines, whereby it is designed to provide a simple and effective machine that can be constructed cheaply. It consists mainly in the arrangement of the presses and the slide for delivering the filled molds, and the means of operating them. LOOMS.—Wm. Eosseter, Accrington, England.—The object of this invention is to provide an improved arrangement of means for changing self-act-ingly the shuttle in which the weft is broken or absent for another shuttle with the weft ready for weaving without stopping the loom. BEEHIVE.—E. P. Starbuck, Gallatin, Mo.—This invention consists in making the separate frames, with which the interior of a beehive is sometimes provided for the attachment of single combs, with zinc sides, for the purpose of keeping the combs cool; also, in providing the entrance with a protector for the purpose of excluding drones, and arranging swinging outlets in said protector for the purpose of letting drones out that may have gained access; also in a peculiar construction of moth traps; and also in inclining the bottom of the main compartment and providing it with an orifice covered with a wire screen through which the litter of the hive may escape. MILL BUSHES AND SPINDLES.—John Williams, Sullivan, 111.—This invention relates to improvements in mill bushes and spindles having for their object to provide an improved arrangement for tightening and lubricating the bearing surfaces of the spindle and the boxes. BEARINGS FOR VERTICAL SHAFTS.—E. A.Dayton, Eichmond, Va.—This invention relates to improvements in bearings for vertical shafts, designed to be applied either as steps for the ends of the shafts, or intermediate bearings, which said bearings are especially adapted to facilitate the lubrication of the shafts. CHURN DASHERS.—Jas. M. Buchanan, Lawrenceville, 111.—This invention relates to improvements in churn dashers, such as are used with the common hand-dasher churns, and consists in the construction of the sa!me, in a manner calculated to produce greater agitation of the cream. FEED-CUTTING ATTACHMENT FOR THRASHING MACHINES.—G. W. Leo, Sandy, Ohio.—This invention relates to improvements in feed cutting apparatus, designed to provide a simple, cheap, and eflective apparatus adapted for attachment to thrashing machines, and operated in combination therewith, in a manner to accomplish the work faster and in a better manner than can be done by cutting apparatus now in use. SADIRON.—Mrs. Julie Dittrich, Hoboken, N. J.—The object ot this invention is to construct a sadiron with a handle that can be readily removed, and with a shield by which the heat ascending from the iron is deflected awayfromthehandof the person using it. The invention consists in a novel manner of arranging a removable handle on the supports that project from the iron, and also in a novel method of suspending the shield from the said removable handle. UTERINE SUPPORTER.—E.J. Fraser, M. D., Erie, Pa.—This invention con sists in forming and applying a bell-shaped metallic ring, with supporting bows attached thereto, which ring is inserted and placed so that the base of the uterus is.supported by, and rests within the ring. EOTARY STEAM ENGINE.—Alpheus C. Gallahue, Morrisania, N. Y.—This invention consists in so constructing and arranging the parts that a continuous action of the steam upon the piston is obtained, and a uniform rotary motion is produced on the main shaft. SPITTOON FOOTSTOOL.—John N. Morrison, Philadelphia, Pa.—This invention consists in forming a footstool with a hinged cover and so as to inclose a spittoon. CIRCULAR VELOCIPEDE.—George J. Sturdy and Solomon W. Young,Pro v-idence.E. I.—This invention relates to a new and useful improvement in velocipedes, whereby they are reduced to their proper and legitimate function—that is, a medium of amusement and exercise for children and youths as well asf or " children of a larger growth," adapting it for play grounds, lawns, gardens, and play rooms. AUTOMATIC COCK FOR FILLING BOTTLES.—E. Jeanjaquet, New York city-—This invention relates to a new and useful improvement in the method of filling bottles, or other vessels, from barrels, pipes, hogsheads, or other closed vessels, whereby the operation of drawing off the liquid contents of suchbarrels or vessels into bottles or other vessels is greatly facilitated. SUBMERGED FORCE PUMP.—James H. Luddington, Bridgeport, Conn.— This invention relates to new and useful improvements in force pumps, which are operated when submerged in the water, as in wells and cisterns. VELOCIPEDE—John C. Smith, Brooklyn, N.Y.—This invention relates to a new and linportant improvement in the method of operating velocipedes, whereby they are propelled with greater ease, and whereby the limbs and muscles of the body are more generally brought into action than by any velocipede now in use. MILKING STOOL.—Chas. F. Pollack and Nicholas Trickey, Theresa, N. Y. —The object of this invention is to provide a milking stool, which affords the means for holding the milk pail, and also for holding the tail of the cow so as to prevent the animal from annoying the person milking, by switching the tail. EEGULATING MAST HOOPS ON VESSELS.—Joseph Conway. Harrison, Md.— The object of this invention is to provide a cheap and simple device, which will prevent mast hoops from catching on the mast, and which will, by causing the hoops to slide smoothly up and down, greatly diminish the labor required to hoist and take in sail in fore-and-aft rigged vessels. PIANOFORTE.—Daniel Stirn, Milwawkee, Wis.—In this invention a new form of sounding board and cast-iron frame, and a new arrangement of. lie sounding board with relation to the cast-iron frame, the strings, and lae supports and fastenings for the latter, are employed for the purpose of giving greater volume, purity, sweetness, and brilliancy to the tone. GAS GENERATOR.—Josiah Jonson, Toledo, Ohio.—The object of this invention is to provide for public use a cheap, convenient, and substantial carbureter, the action of which can be so adjusted and controlled as to present a greater or less carbureting surface to the air, whereby the latter Ganbe combined with any required proportion of inflammable vapor with-* out changing the draft or quantity of air. PAINT BRUSHES.—F. P. Furnald, Jr., New York city, E. W. Champion, Brooklyn,N.Y., and I. N. Davies, Bergen City.N. J.—The object of this invention is to provide a more durable and economical connection of the handles and bushes of paint and other similar brushes than is afforded by the present construction. HAY ELEVATING APPARATUS.—O. E.Mabie, Camden, N. Y.—This invention relates to improvements in hoisting apparatus for elevating hay and delivering it on to the bay, and consists of a tackle block, so formed that when the fork in its upward movement arrives at the said block from which it is suspended, the latter will become detached from its suspending device andpermitthe load to fall in alateraldirection upon the bay. CULTIVATOR.—J.M.Culver,Gilbertsville, Iowa.—This invention relates to improvements in cultivators, the object of which is to provide a light hand implement for garden use. SCREW PROPELLERS.—Henrietta Vansittart, Eichmond, England.—The object of this invention is to economize the power required in driving steam propellers for ships, or other vessels. This is effected by so modif'-ing the form of the blades of screw propellers, as to cause them to act more effectually on the water and to prevent them from " churning " or useless -ly stirring the water near the center of motion. The invention consists in an improved mode of determining the proper curvature of the blades, and of forming the said curves. STARTING AND STOPPING CARS.—G.W.Davis and Albert E. Smith, Providence, E. I.—The object of this invention is to provide a simple and effective means for stopping and starting railroad cars. !It is designed more particularly for street cars, but the stopping device is also applicable to steam cars. NECK PAD FOR HORSES.—C. J. Fisher, Waukon, Iowa.—This invention relates to a new device for protecting the necks of horses between the upper ends of the collar, to prevent galling. For this purpose pieces of leather, cloth, or other material have heretofore been used, but without the desired success. Pads could not be made, as their inner faces could not be kept clear from wrinkles or protuberances, which are more injurious than the omission of a protecting device.
This article was originally published with the title "Recent American and Foreign Patents" in Scientific American 20, 21, 332 (May 1869)