The following inventions have been patented this week, as will be found by referring to our List of Claims on another page :— STMIP EXTRACTOR.—Thil machine consists of a cylindrical rack fitted within a proper socket, and used in connection with lifting and retaining pawls, all being arranged in a suitable framing, so that a strong, durable and efficient mnchine is obtained, and one that will transmit, with the least possible frictiop, all the power applied to it. It is the invention of S. P. Castle, Urbana, Ohio. ATTACHING SHAFTS TO VEHICLES.—This improvement consists in so applying or attaching the shafts to a vehicle that they may be adjusted to receive a single horde as usual, and also capable of being adjusted to form a draft pole for a pair of horses without removing them; thus enabling a vehicle to be changed from a lingle to a double horse one in a short space of time. It is the invention of V. N. Mitchell, of Concord, N. C., assignor to himself, H. A. Area and C. N. White, of the same place. IMPROVED CNURN.—Jnstin M. Smith, of Lyme, Conn., has invented an improved churn, which consists in having a series of oblique nrms attached to a vertical rotating shaft, which is fitted within an inverted conical case provided with a perforated plate at its bottom. The parts are so arranged that the butter, without being subjected to an undue action, will, as the shaft is rotated, have all the buttermilk expressed from it. STEAM VALVE.—This improved valve is of the circular or disk-form kind, and is operated with a reciprocating circular motion. Its novelty consists in the arrangement Jf its parts and passages for the induction and eduction of the steam, whereby a large amount of opening is obtained with a small amount of motion, and it is relieved, to a great extent, from the pressure of the steam on its back side. It was invented by Wm. R. Michener, of Marlborough, Ohio. PIANOFORTES.—This invention consists in so applying a second dounding-board to a pianoforte, in addition to the usual sounding-board upon which the strings rest, that the second sonnding-board shall form the bottom of the piano case, making the case like that of an immense violin, increasing the volume of sound through the medium of the sounding-boards, which are placed at such a distance as not to interfere with each other. It is the invention of S. B. Driggs, of New York City. WHEEL VEHICLES.—This is an improvement in wheel vehicles, whereby they may be turned in a small compass. The inventIon consists in having the front and back wheels attached to levers, and also having these levers connected by rods, in such a way that when the shafts or line of draft is turned, the front and back whceli are turned simultaneously in opposite directions, and the desired object is obtained.. JohnHeiden, of New York City, is the inventor. VELOCIPEDES.—An improvement in these useful vehicles of transport has been invented by Louis Kellner, of Brooklyn, N. Y., which consists in the use of treddles in connection with a bearing-board, so arranged that the occupant may propel the vehicle along by operating the treddles, and a greater or less speed can be obtained, according to the physical strength of the operator. Levers are also used in connection with the treddles, when an increase of propelling power is required. Instead of, as in the ordinary velocipedes, transmitting the force of the treddle to a driving wheel, the power is here directly applied from the treddle to the ground, thus saving a vast amount of friction. BILLIAND CUSHIONS.—H. W. Collender, of 53 Ann street, this city, has patented an improvement in billiard cushions, which consiets in uniting the comparatively solid strip of rubber, gutta percha, steel or whalebone, to the elastio or spring foundation, by placing the comparatively solid substances in a mold, and allowing the melted rubber to flow against, or the plastic rubber to be pressed around, or.in contact with the same, so that it shall surround the edges, back, and ends of the same, and thus securely confine it, without the necessity of using cement, naili, hinges, or any cloth covering to retain it. We regard this as a very valuable improvement in the manufacture of the cnshion, and like former inventions of Mr. Collender in thi.s branch of the arts, it commends itself to the public. A MODEL BILLIARD TABLE.—The improvements in billiard tables patented this week to Mr. Phelan, of this city, are worthy of notice. The first feature of novelty is the extension of the cushions in a right line from pocket to pocket, instead of giving them a curved form of about 2J inches near each pocket, and thus taking away full thirty inches 01 playing surface on each table. The second feature is tho form of the pocket-iron, whereby the ball is caused to glide into the pocket with unorring certainty, and without banging upon and wearing away the leather covering of the pocket-irons. A table furnished with these improvements will very seldom require to have its pocket-irons re-covered with leather, and thus a great saving will be effected ; the ivory balls will also be saved from deterioration, as they will not come in contact with the exposed metal. The player can always calculate, with certainty, the effect that the ball will produce on the reflective angle, as the surface of the cushion is uniform from pocket to pocket; and on the one table he can have increased facilities for the execution of the "cannon shots," with even greater advantages for the performance of the " hazard shots." We are informed that these improvements, in connection with Mr. Phelan's , cushion, are being generally adopted through- J out the country. An engraving of this im- ( provement will soon appear in our columns.
This article was originally published with the title "Recent Patented Improvements" in Scientific American 13, 20, 155 (January 1858)