The following rules for the restoration of persons appavent-ly dead from drowning, are those given by Professor Benjamin Howard, of this city, and sanctioned by the Metropolitan Board of Health of the city of New York. The accompanying engravings will also aid in their application. Fig, 1 represents the mode of forcing and draining off water and other accumulations from the stomach, throat, and mouth, according to Rule 2, preparatory to performing artificial breathing. Fig. 2 represents the posture of patient, A, according to Rule 3—arms extended backward, and ribs thrown prominently forward by a roll of clothing, a, 'beneath the back. RULE 1.—Unless in danger of freezing, never move the patient from the spot where first rescued, nor allow bystanders to screen off the fresh air, but instantly wipe clean the mouth and nostrils, rip and remove all clothing to a little below the waist, rapidly rub and dry the exposed part, and give two quick, smarting slaps on the stomach with your open hand. If this does not succeed immediately, proceed according to the following rules to perform artificial breathing: RULE 2.—Turn the patient on his face, a large bundle of tightly-rolleu clothing, a, Fig. 1, being placed beneath bis stomach, and press heavily over it upon the spine for half a minute. RULE 3.—Turn the patient quickly again on his back, Fig. 2 ; the roll of clothing being so placed beneath it as to make the short ribs bulge prominently forward, and raise them a little higher than the level of the mouth. Let some bystander hold the tip of the tongue out of one corner of the mouth with a dry handkerchief, and hold both hands of the patient together, the arms being stretched forcibly back above the head. RULE 4.—Kneel astride the patient's hips, C, Fig. 2, and with your hands resting on his stomach, spread out your fingers so that you can grasp the waist about the short ribs. Now, throw all your weight steadily forward upon your hands, while you at the same time squeeze the ribs deeply, as if you wished to force everything in the chest upwards out of the mouth. Continue this while you can slowly count—one —two—.three ; then suddenly let go, with a final push, which springs you back to your first kneeling position. Remain erect upon your knees while you can count—one—two ; then throw your weight forward again as before, repeating the entire motions—at first about four or five times a minute, increasing the rate gradually to about fifteen times a minute, and con tinning with the same regularity of time and motion as is observed in the natural breathing which you are imitating. RULE 5.—Continue this treatment, though apparently unsuccessful, for two hours, until the patient begins to breathe ;! and for a while after this help him by well-timed pressure to j deepen his first gasps into full, deep breaths ; while the fric-1 tion of the limbs, which should, if possible, have been kept up during the entire process, is now further increased. RULE 6.—AFTER TREATMENT—EXTERNALLY.—As soon as the breathing has become perfectly natural, strip the patient; rapidly and completely. Enwrap him in blankets only. Put him in bed in a room comfortably warm, but with a free circulation of fresh air, and except for the administration of internal treatment, let him have perfect rest. INTERNALLY.—Give a little hot brandy and water, or other stimulant at hand, every ten or fifteen minutes for the first hour, and as often thereafter as may seem expedient. The philosophy of this treatment will be given in our next issue. Electro-Heating Apparatus. This invention, patented March 12,1869, is based upon the well-known fact that electricity, in passing- through a conductor of insui-cient capacity (such, for instance, as a wire of very small diameter), evolves or develops heat. It is also well known that a wire of any great length, and of sufficiently small size to evolve considerable heat, will not conduct a strong current of electricity without difficulty and loss, and that as t he wire becomes heated, its non-conductivity is increased, and that, in consequence, the heat becomes so great that the wire will be fused. The object of the invention is to obviate this difficulty by enabling a strong current of electricity to pass through a heat-evolving apparatus of any length; and to this end it consists in providing an electrical conducting coil, or chain, with intervals of small conducting power, in traversing which the electricity will be caused to evolve heat; and further, in interposing between said obstructing intervals, free conductors of much larger size, which constitute reservoirs of electricity, and radiators of heat, and will effectually obviate the difficulty experienced in a continuous length of conductor of insufficient capacity. In the engraving, Fig. 1 is a plan of a device, or apparatus, by which the invention may be applied for warming railway carriages, by means of heated metallic plates placed under the feet of passengers, portions of the plate being omitted, in order to expose the interior. Fig. 2 is a plan, on a larger scale, of a portion of the conducting and heat-evolving coil or chain. Fig. 3 represents a vertical transverse section of the apparatus. In this application of the invention, A, Fig. 1, may represent a bed or case of suitable non-conducting material. It is divided into parallel tlongitudinal grooves, of a sufficient size and depth to contain the coil or chain, and close enough together to allow of a compact arrangement of it. B represents the spaces, or divisions between the coil, and C, the coil, resting in the bed or groove. F Q represent wires, to be connected with the poles of an electrical machine, battery, or generator, furnishing or producing a current of electricity best suited for the purpose of evolving heat; and H is a metallic plate, covering the coil, C, without contact therewith. If the wires, F O, be placed in connection with any suitable electrical apparatus, the current of electricity, in passing the small intervals, D, Fig. 2, will evolve heat, but by reason of the shortness of these, and the reservoirs provided by the interposed metal, C, the coil or chain may be extended to any length, in order that a large and compact arrangement may be obtained to afford the required accumulation of heat. As soon as the obstructions, D, become heated, the heat is rapidly communicated to the reservoirs and radiators, C, and from these to the metallic plate, H It is intended to use the invention for producing heat in all cases where it can be applied to advantage, and to use the kind of electricity and electrical apparatus that may be found best adapted for the purpose. In this application of the invention, namely, for railway carriages or cars, it is proposed to employ magneto-electric machines, constructed especially for this'purpose, for producing the requisite current, placed, if necessary, under the car, and to obtain the power to operate them from the axle of the car —thus taking advantage of a motive power which already exists, but of which, heretofore, no use has been made. A machine capable of heating to incandescence one foot of platinum wire one tenth of an inch diameter, will heat one hundred feet one hundredth of an inch; two hundred feet, two hundredths of an inch, etc.; the law being that the lengths of the wires vary inversely in proportion to the squares of their diameters. Now to reduce this to practice, it will be seen that a machine or battery of the power above referred to will heat a length of coil or chain, in which the aggregate length of the small wire of one-hundredth of an inch diame ter, forming the obstructions, is one hundred feet; and two hundred feet, if their diameters are reduced one half, etc. In other words, having a machine of a certain power and a certain degree of heat is required, the diameters of the obstructing media may be reduced or increased in order to accommo, date them to the power of the machine. In order to warm an American car upon this plan, allowing for a tray placed in the floor of the car, in front of each seat, it is estimated it would require an entire length of the chain or coil of about three hundred and sixty feet, and in which the obstructing media form an aggregate length of about seventy feet; so that to accomplish this it would require a machine to heat this latter number of feet of small wire. Although this may be a new application of electricity, and no machines can now be obtained already organized, jmd of sufficient power to be applied for this purpose, English electricians have made estimates of machines which come within all the requirements, as to power, space occupied, weight, power to operate them, etc., to make the invention practical and economical. Even with machines constructed for lighthouse purposes, eighteen feet of number twenty iron wire can be melted instantly; and the fact is well known to elec tricians, if the same machine were organized for producing a current of quantity, the heating power would be greatly in. creased. The inventor is not aware of any chemical battery by means of which this invention may be economically applied. In this case, the law of equivalents is in the way; and there must be a destruction of the battery corresponding to the amount of heat produced. In the course of time, however, chemical batteries may be constructed so as to be applied advantageously, as for instance those having large metallic surfaces exposed to a weak chemical action ; or earth currents may be accumu. lated and utilized for this purpose ; but for the present he relies entirely upon the magneto-electric machine. Advantage may be taken of a train of cars going down grade, when usually the steam is cut off and the brakes put down, without taxing the locomotive at all; whereas, in case of combustion of coal, the loss is the same whether going up or down grade. Among 'some of the advantages claimed for this method of heating railroad cars are the following: First, its economy ; second, its safety ; and, third, its comfort. Concerning its economy, the trays may be constructed of hard wood, and covered by any metal, but copper would be best on account of its absorbing heat more rapidly and retaining it longer. As regards the cost of magnet machines, this would be materially reduced if they were made by machinery and in large numbers, instead of by hand. There would be but little wear and tear of them except at certain points ; and in case the magnets should in time become weakened, they could be easily taken apart and re-charged. There being no strain or wear and tear upon the coil, being protected from injury by the plate covering it, and, besides, there being no possibility of its becoming oxidized by the degree of heat it would be subjected to—say 120 or 140 degrees, it is supposed it would last for an indefinite period. It is to be borne in mind, also, that by dispensing with stoves, eight seats in each car are gained, and, consequently, a train of seven cars would accommodate the same number of passengers, which, with stoves, would require eight cars. In short, the percentage upon the original outlay, would not compare to the annual expense of warming cars upon the plans now in use. Regarding its safety, in case of a train being thrown from the track, instead of passengers being roasted alive by red-hot stoves, or scalded by the severance of steam pipes, the stoppage of the car stops the electric current; but even if it did not, there could be no possibility of a casualty from the effects of heat. What is claimed here as an advantage might be seized upon as a very glaring fault, ana the question might be put: " But how do you propose to warm the car before starting, or in case a train should run into a snow bank ?" The answer is, that by means of a wheel or pulley, connected by a band or cord with the machine under the car, the necessary current may be ob-, tained by hand power to warm the car. " Thia might answer," the questioner is supposed to continue, doubtingly, "but how would you manage, say, with your invention applied to the cars of the Union Pacific Railroad? You must know that, in ascending the Rocky Mountains, not only is the locomotive taxed to a much greater ex-tent than tipon the level ground of the prairies; but the higher the train ascends the more rarefied, and, consequently, f colder becomes the atmosphere." This is answered by stating that, in order to ascend the grades of the Rocky Mountains, locomotives of much greater power, and sometimes sev-iml, are employed; and the necessary revolutions of the machine may be kept up by an arrangement of pulleys similar to that employed in all machine shops, by which the speed of a lathe may be controlled by slipping the band upon a pulley of large or small diameter. There can lie no question as to the comfort of warming cars by electricity. There would be no exhalation of noxious gases nor deterioration of the atmosphere, as is the case with stoves.! The heat radiated from, say, thirty metallic plates in the floor of the car wo uld be not only sufficient to keep the feet of passengers comfortably warm ; but by heating the lowest strata of air, would produce a genial warmth in the body of the car. Much more might be said of this invention for utilizing the beat of the electric current. Much more might be said of its application iu cases where a cheap power may be obtained; but it fe presumed enough lias already been said in order that the public may form an intelligent idea of the principles upon which it is based ami of what is claimed as some of its advantages. Address for further particulars DT. W. Leigh Burton, Franklin and Seventh streets, Richmond, Va.
This article was originally published with the title "Restoration of Persons Apparently Dead from Drowning" in Scientific American 21, 9, 133-134 (August 1869)