With millions of scientific papers published every year and more than $2 trillion invested annually in research and development, scientists make plenty of progress. But could we do better? There is increasing evidence that some of the ways we conduct, evaluate, report and disseminate research are miserably ineffective. A series of papers in 2014 in the Lancet, for instance, estimated that 85 percent of investment in biomedical research is wasted. Many other disciplines have similar problems. Here are some of the ways our reward and incentives systems fail and some proposals for fixing the problems.