Perhaps it is not wise to prophesy a time when enzy-mic diseases shall lose all their terror by reason of the discovery of effective antidotes to the poisons to which their ravages are generally due. It is reasonable, however, to look forward to the time when the terror of these diseases, namely, diphtheria, typhoid fever, typhus and kindred scourges shall be reduced to a minimum. The decade from 1880 to 1890 may be called the golden age of setiology, for in these years were discovered the hitherto unknown parasitic microbes of typhoid fever, tuberculosis, malaria, Asiatic cholera, diphtheria, and tetanus. The last decade of a century which has well been called the wonderful, witnessed the discovery of antitoxins by Behring and the beginnings of serum therapy. With the single exception of the changes effected by the acceptance of the theory of organic evolution, there has been no modification of human opinion within the nineteenth century more wonderful, or more profoundly affecting the general conduct of human life, than that in our attitude toward the nature, the causation, and the prevention of disease--that is to say, toward public health science. The determination of the presence of small quantities of foreign fat in lard is exceedingly difficult, and taxes the skill of the chemist to the utmost. Most fats which are suitable or available for mixing are so similar to lard in their physical and chemical properties that the determinations which suffice to detect their presence when they occur in large amounts or to identify them in their pure state are of little or no value in detecting the small amounts usually employed in adulterated lard. As a result, the chemist must de-pcind to a large extent on certain qualitative or approx-imatively quantitative tests. Many of these tests are not based on any inherent property of the fat, but depend on some impurity, due perhaps to the method of manufacture, or, with animal fats, to the kind of food upon which tUe animal has been fed. The absorptive systems of plants seem to be admirably adapted for their needs from a diosmotic point of view. Diffusion may, therefore, be sufficiently rapid to supply all demands of the absorbing cells or organs. Nevertheless, the assumption that ordinarily diffusion through the cell and plasmatic membrane is sufficiently rapid properly to provide for the translocation of metabolic products from cell to cell is certainly open to further inquiry. Present knowledge of the trans-locatory processes is insufficient. Plasmatic connections between cells are now known to be of common occurrence, and this fact has given further interest to the above inquiry. Brown and Escombe are of the opinion that the plasmatic connections are eminently adapted for all of those phenomena which they have found to belong, as subsequently mentioned, to multiperforate septa. They claim, further, that with slight differences of osmotic pressure the necessary concentration of gradient for increased translocation would be very simply effected. The yield of oil and pomace that may be obtained from a given quantity or weight of castor beans varies according to the quality and condition of the beans and the climatic conditions under which they were produced. Beans of good quality contain about 45 per cent of oil, but 32 per cent is, on a general average, about the proportion of oil extracted by the process of manufacture used in the United States. The rather high proportion of about 13 per cent remains unexpressed in the pomace. The weight of imported castor beans as fixed by the United States tariff regulations is 50 pounds to the bushel, and consequently in. the eastern mills it is customary to estimate the yield of oil and pomace, respectively, at 16 pounds (2 gallons) and 34 pounds to the bushel. In the West the weight per bushel of domestic castor beans is fixed at 46 pounds, and on this basis the yield of oil per bushel of beans would be 14.72 pounds (1.84 gallons) and of pomace 31.28 pounds. Commander Peary sailed at two oclock, July 26, from North Sydney, Nova Scotia, in his Arctic steamer Roosevelt on his quest for the Pole.
This article was originally published with the title "Science Notes" in SA Supplements 60, 1544supp, 99 (August 1905)