When you open your eyes and reach out to shut off the alarm clock, two distinct brain systems are activated: one recognizes the clock, and the other guides your hand. Neuroscientists have long been aware of this “dissociation” between the recognition and guidance systems, but they had not been able to observe both in action. Now Lior Shmuelof and Ehud Zohary of Hebrew University in Jerusalem have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to see the duality in action in human volunteers.