In patent infringement suits, as might be expected, the Laboratory does yeoman service for the court. It does not construe claims, for that is a matter of law ; but it determines matters of technical fact, with the result that a judge is spared the necessity of considering a mass of testimony which, to a layman in science, even though he be a lawyer, must seem a hopeless jumble of cryptic phrases. One such case turned upon the point whether or not a certain brand of soap was so greatly superior to another in washing qualities as to be patentably different. On behalf of the court, the Laboratory made a study of the two soaps to determine their solubility in water, acids and lime solutions, and their effect on dyes and on fabrics. It showed conclusively that the one soap was no better than the other. These opinions of the Laboratory on matters of technical fact are by law made binding upon the courts. A judge must accept the technical decision of the Laboratory and rule accordingly. Germany has a tariff, which, like our own, is intended to protect the home producer. Disputes with the customs authorities are therefore as frequent in Germany as in the United States. The American appraiser submits imported goods for scientific examination either to chemists or physicists in the employ of the customs service, or else he employs outside experts. The German customs authorities call upon the Royal Laboratory for Testing Materials for assistance. In a controversy which arose between the customs authorities and an importer of mercerized cotton, the government maintained that the fabric was dyed and therefore subject to a higher duty than if it were undyed. The importer insisted that the cotton was undyed. Gross Lichterfelde examined the fabric scientifically and supported him in his contention. An American Appeals for Scientific Help. Foreigners, too, resort occasionally to the Laboratory when the questions at issue affect German industry. I was told an American importer of German paper who had been compelled, as he thought, to pay a higher duty in the United States than the Dingley tariff required. Because the importation was an oily German paper substitute for parchment. he asked the Laboratory to tell him how treated papers could be scientifically distinguished from untreated papers. He received an exhaustive description of the turpentine oil test, armed with which he intended to appeal to the American customs authorities again. Another foreign firm wished to ascertain whether its steel hydrogen flasks met the requirements of the German police regulations governing the traffic in liquid and compressed gases. were sent to Gross Lichterfelde. There it was found that the wrong kind of metal been employed, and that the police requirements had by no means been fulfilled. Whenever any department of the German Imperial Government is confronted with a technical problem for solution it is (Concluded on page 604.) PATENTS OVER 65 YEARS' EXPERIENCE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. FREE SAMPLE goes witb tbe first letter. Something new. Every firm wants it. Orders from $1.00 to $100.00. Nice pleasant business. Big demand everywhere. Write for free sample. Metallic Mfg. Co., 438 N. Clark, Chicago. OPEN :COR OFFERS. States and Canadian Patent Rights, five Household Essentials and or.e “Military approved” article of commissariat. Selling well. Hell outright or shares and cash in subsidiary company. Dale Marshall. Consulting Engineer, Cneltingham. England. BONUS £12,000 (nearly $60.000) offered to Inventors, Chemists. or Scientists, by the New Zealand Government for Improvements in : (1) Extraction and Dressing of Fibre from the New Zealand Hemp Plant, Phormium Tenax. (2) Utilization ot By-products. On condition that machine or process be recommended by the New Zealand Flaxmiliers' Assocn, and approved by the New Zealand Government. For Leaflet Jiving fun particulars apply Dept. of Agriculture. Washington. Higb Commissioner tor New Zealand, London New Zealand Flaxmillers' Assocn, Palmerston North, New Zealand. PATENTS FOR SALE. BROAD “BASIC,” patent No. 1.011,574, ElectricHeated Glove fordriversof all vehicles. The demand is treme n-dous and will require a comparatively small amount of capital to develop. A. L. Carron Geneva, N. Y. REAL ESTATE. TEXAS INVESTMENTS-—Buy farm orchard garden lands near Houston, the greatest and most prosperous city in the southwest, where values are going up all the time and fortunes made in real estate in snort while. Easy terms if desired. Single crop pays for land: several crops annually. Address E. C. Robertson, 501 Kiam Bldg., Houston, Tex. WANTED. WANTED-A man or woman to act as our information reporter. All or spare time. No experiencenecces-sary. $50 to $300 per month. Nothing to sell. Sendsramp forparticulars. Sales Association, 693 AssociationBldg. Indianapolis, Indiana. MISCELLANEOUS. ARITHSTYLK Handiest, Fastest, Cheapest, Practical Computing Machine. Carries automatically, resets instantaneously. Calculates everything, needed everywhere, interests everybody. Shortest methods. Checking systems. Brain-resting, time-savin?, work-proving. Exceptional iigents'opportunity. Exclusive territory. Request particulars. Arithstyle Company, 28th Street A rcade, New York. INQUIRY COLUMN READ THIS COLUMN CAREFULLY.— You will find iuquiries for certain classes of articles numbered in consecutive order. If you manufacture these goods write us at once and we will send you the name and address of the party desirinc- tbe information. There is no charge for tbis service. In every case it is necessary to give the number of the inquiry. Wbere manufacturers do not respond promptly tbe inquiry may be repeateo. MUNl'I <to CO., Inc. Inquiry No. 92'!)4.—Wanted, thename and address of manufacturers of lead pencils and pen holders, such as are used for printing advertisements on. Inquiry No. 9255—Wanted, to buy a patent roller, a ball-bearmgaxle.wbicb could be purchased on a royalty basis; it must be cheap and fully proved. Inquiry No. 923ff. Wanted addresses of parties baving Pitchblende deposits, if able to ship ore. Inquiry No. 92257. Wanted addresses of firms selling second-h and water turbines. Inquiry No. I25"'.—Wanted addresses of parties. having gem materials to offer in any part of the world. Inquiry NO. 2959.—Wanted tobuyamacbine for removing tbe coating of a filbert. Inquiry No. 9260.—Want addresses of parties able to ship corundum, garnet. flint, emery or any material suitable as anabrasive. Inquiry No. 9261.—Wanted, a manufacturer to make card games Inquiry No. 9262,—Wanted, to buy a' glass which” Is a conductor of electricity, and tbe address of, the makers of the same. December 30, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 603 The Scientific American for 1912 S5CTagaz/ne Numbers /(!)r /9/2 JANUARY — Annual Motor Number FEBRUARY 10— Science in Agriculture MARCH 16— Good Roads APRIL 13— Science in the Ideal Home MAY 18— Our Coast Defenses JUNE 15— Cause and Cure of Factory Waste JULY 13— Sanitation AUGUST 17— Chemistry in the Arts SEPTEMBER 14— Aviation OCTOBER 12— Labor-Saving Machinery NOVEMBER 9— Invention DECEMBER 7— The Panama Canal /I T the close of last year, under the caption of The r~l Greater “Scientific American,” the publishers announced that the scope of the paper would be extended; that a series of mid-month numbers of greatly enlarged size, contained in a colored cover, would be issued, the contents being devoted to some special subject of national importance. We also announced that there would be a series of articles written by specialists in their several departments, and that these new features would be accompanied by a general improvement in the typography and make-up of the paper. (jf The fifty-two issues of the past year speak for themselves ; and their favorable reception by our subscribers and the general reading public encourages the publishers to continue the same policy, on even more progressive lines, throughout the year 1 912. Special Contributors THE high quality of the Scientific American of 191 1 will be evident from a study of its list of contributors, conspicuous among whom were President Taft, Secretary G. v. L. Meyer, Admiral A. T. Mahan, the chiefs of the various bureaus, and other high ranking officers of the navy; Secretary Charles Nagel, of the Bureau of Commerce and Labor; The Hon. John Barrett, Director of the Pan-American Union; Commissioner of Navigation E. T. Chamberlain, ex-Chief Forester Gilford Pinchot; Director F.H. Newell of the Reclamation Service; Judge Judson C. Clements, Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission ; Dr. J. A. Holmes, Director of the Bureau of Mines ; Professor Ira Remsen, President of Johns Hopkins University; W. J. Spill-man, and other members of the staff of the Department of Agriculture; Robert Kennedy Duncan, S. A. Mitchell, H. N. Russell, H. W. Walker, Moyer S. Fleisher, E. L. Thorndike, T. C. Martin, and W. C. Brown, President of the New York Central Railway Company. The list of contributors for 1912 will be equally distinguished. It will include themajor-ity of the names above mentioned, together with others of high authority in the various fields that will be covered during the year. The Scientific American will combine to follow closely its avowed policy, as stated at the head of its Editorial Columns: “The purpose of this Journal is to record accurately, simply, and interestingly, the world's progress in scientific knowledge and industrial achievement." The Broad Scope of the Paper THE subjects dealt with in 1912 will come under the heads of civil, mechanical and electrical engineering; naval and military; the merchant marine; the internal combustion motor; chemistry with special attention to electro-chemistry and electro-metallurgy ; science as applied to the industries; science in agriculture. There will be the usual amount of space devoted to biography, astronomy, scientific abstracts from current periodicals and archaeology. Under the subject of inventions, particular attention will be given to the leading inventions and to patent practice, with a reference to notable cases, and there will be the usual run of inventors' notes. The popular “Workshop” and “Laboratory” departments will make their regular appearance. The Panama Canal Number THE great popularity of our recent Naval Number, which was immediately recognized as a brochure on the navy of unusual authority and information, has decided the publishers to prepare a similar number in December, 1912, on the Panama Canal. The material for this issue will be gathered by our Editor-in-Chief, Mr. J. Bernard Walker, who will spend some time at Panama for the purpose of making a personal inspection of this stupendous work, and securing the necessary plans, photographs and data. The number will contain a complete account of the history, construction, operation, military defenses, and commercial and naval value to the United States of this great national undertaking. Science in the Industries AN important feature of the 1912 program will be a series of articles by Mr. Walde-mar Kaempffert, Managing Editor of the Scientific American, in which he will sketch the scientific basis of Germany's remarkable commercial success—the object of this series being to offer for the consideration of the American business man certain well-proved methods for increasing the physical efficiency of the workman and the amount and quality of his output. Two of the articles will deal with German education— “The German Commercial High School", which turns out captains of industry, and “The German Vocational School", which turns out soldiers of industry. The series will also include the following articles on the relation of science to industry : “The Royal Laboratory for Testing Materials at Gross Lichterfelde” (published in this issue); “The Utilization of Waste Materials' “The GermanTechnological Museum at Munich” (the remarkable technological museum in which the visitor is allowed to manipulate, through a crank or other means, an operative apparatus); “The Workingman as a Human Machine"; “The State and the German Laborer"; “City Government as a Science"; and lastly, “The Commercial Utilization of Scientific Discoveries"—a summing up of impressions gleaned from a dozen factories, workshops and cities. These articles will be based upon the facts and impressions gathered by the author during a recent extensive tour of Germany, made for this express purpose. 604 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December 30, 1911 JUST PUBLISHED The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulas The Most Complete and Auffiorifatrve ffoofe of Receipts Pnfe/tsW t Par ly Based on the Twenty-Eighth Edition of • The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Receipts, Notes and Queries • Edited by ALBERT A. HOPKINS , Query Editor of the Scientific American THIS is practically a new book and has called for the work of a corps of specialists for more than two years. Over 15,000 of the most useful formulas and processes, carefully selected from a collection of nearly 150,000, are contained in this most valuable volume, nearly every branch of the useful arts being represented. Never before has such a large collection of really valuable formulas, useful to everyone, been offered to the public. The formulas are classified and arranged into chapters containing related subjects, while a complete index, made by professional librarians, renders it easy to find any formula desired. - r "As Indispensable as a Dictionary and More Useful" Fo//o»ing is a List o/ /he Cfiapfera: I. Accidents and Emergencies. II. Agriculture. III. Alloys and Amalgams. IV. Art and Artists' Materials. V. Beverages; Non-Alcoholic and Alcoholic. VI. Cleansing, Bleaching, Renovating and Protecting. VII. Cements, Glues, Pastes and Mucilages. VIII. Coloring of Metals, Bronzing, etc. IX. Dyeing. X. Electrometallurgy and Coating of Metals. XI. Glass. XII. Heat Treatment of Metals. XIII. Household Formulas. XIV. Ice Cream and Confectionery. XV. Insecticides, Extermination of Vermin. XVI. Lapidary Art, Bone, Ivory, etc. XVII. Leather. XVIII. Lubricants. XIX. Paints, Varnishes, etc. XX. Photogiaphy. XXI. Preserving, Canning, Pickling, etc. XXII. Rubber, Gutta-Percha and Celluloid. XXIII. Soaps and Candles. XXIV. Soldering. XXV. Toilet Preparations, including Perfumery. XXVI. Waterproofing and Fireproofing. XXVII. Writing Material. Send for detailed illustrated prospectus. Octavo (6^x 8% inches), 1077 Pages, 200 Illustrations Price, in Cloth, $5.00, Net. Half Morocco, $6.50, Net, Postpaid MUNN&CO., Inc., Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York City Lifelong Dividends for a Few Dollars Now | Marden's Books of inspiration 12 VOLUMES t John Wanamaker has just written Dr. Marden: “ Had I seen such a book as ' Pushing to the Front' when I first started towards mercantile life, I should—if it had been necessary—gone at least without one meal a day to save enough money to have bought the book." 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The Roll Call of iheGreat i enclose three dollars. Send me at once, transportation charges f ulh^l Iprepaid, the complete twelve-volume “Marden Inspirational Library, 3668 pages, bound in cloth—-silk—leather, and enter my name for I Ia full two-years' subscription to SUCCESS MAGAZINE. I promise to remit three dollars each month until I have paid in all I $12 for the cloth binding. I $15 for the silk binding. I | $18 for the leather bin din g. | Nome...................................................... y ! Address.................................................... I ' CilyondState............................................... I t Occupation................................................. | JjSUCCESS MAGAZINE, Dejt.jr 29-31 E.22dSt.,NewYork almost sure to ask Gross Lichterfelde for advice. Thus, for the Royal Powder Works of Spandau, specifications were formulated for the manufacture of machine and cylinder oil, machine greases, linseed oil, turpentine oil and vegetable oils. For the Minister of Public Works a scientific test for distinguishing natural from artificial asphalt was worked out, and a study made of the thermal conductivity of refractory building materials. When the Imperial Printing Office decided to improve the quality of German post cards, Gross Lichterfelde made a study of existing cardboards and papers and practically invented a new composition which would answer modern commercial requirements. Hand in hand with the Artillery Testing Commission, tests were made with copper cylinders for measuring gas pressures. Even the German colonies consult the Laboratory, for the German governor in Togo and Kamerun submitted African woods for comparison with North and South American woods, with the result that in the near future Germany will probably draw upon her African supplies. The institution at Gross Lichterfelde has a history that extends back to the experiments made by Dr. A. Woehler, an engineer who, in 1863, constructed the first really scientific testing apparatus employed in Germany. But the remarkable place which the institution has won in German industrial life and its worldwide reputation is due almost entirely to its present head, Geheimer Oberregier-ungsrat, Prof. A. Maartens. When he was appointed to fill the director's chair in 1884 the entire scientific staff of the mechanical-technical department consisted of only three men, and the apparatus of two testing machines. What the development of the Laboratory has been since then may be judged from the highly varied character of the work here outlined. That astonishing development would hardly have been possible had not Maartens himself devised a very large part of the experimental apparatus which constitutes the equipment of the Koenig-liches Material-Pruefungsamt.
This article was originally published with the title "Settling Patent Infringement Suits, An American Appeals for Scientific Help" in Scientific American 105, 27, 602 (December 1911)