Persons in growing old are often troubled with seeing spots, like flies, moving before their eyes, especially in looking at bright ob-jeots. These spots have been called by "the profession" muscae volitaniei. After raising the head suddenly, and fixing the eye upon an object, the muscae appear to descend gradually. Dr. Mackenzie, in his elaborate work on the eye, describes these as resembling minute twisted semi-transparent tubes, partially filled with globules, which sometimes appear In motion, but really have no motion independent of th* ball of the eye, and ho considers that the globules are blood passing through the vessels of the retina. Many persons frequently notice the muscae volitantes in their eyes, especially in looking upon snow on which the sun is shining, and nervous persons are very often frightened at beholding them, because they are generally considered a disease, and forerunner of cataract or amourosis. Sir David Brewster gives some comfort to many persons regarding this phenomenon. From late experiments he has come to the conclusion that the spots seen by the eyes have no connection with tho diseases mentioned. " This valuable result," he says, " has been deduced from a recondite property of divergent light, which has only been developed in our day." He also asserts that the muscae rolitantes are harmless, and their general phenomena present themselves to the eyes of every person he has examined—old and young. They may bo seen in daylight, he states, by looking at tho sky through a pinhole in a piece of brass or card, and at night by looking at a candle through a lens of short focal length. In such observations the luminous field is seen covered with twisted tubes filled with globules in motion. When blatfk spots are seen by the eyes, not changing place, they are not the muscae volitantes, but insensible spots in the retina, and are just sources of alarm as symptoms of amourosis. A few years since, we remember of a paragraph which was quoted very extensively in the newspapers regarding some person in France, who was enabled to see the atoms of which the atmosphere is supposed to be composed, in the form of small transparent globules, by looking through a pinhole in a metal plate in the bright sunshine. About that period, a person came from some distance to our office, and exhibited what he considered a prosf of this discovery. It was a long dark paper tnbe, with a very minute pinhole in its end, by looking through which, these globules could be distinctly seen in motion. They, however, were not the atoms of air, but the muscae volitantes, as has since been demonstrated by Sir David Brewster. The muscae f are generally invisible in ordinary light; it is * only by divergent light, such as that which A diverges from a small aperture, that they are jjQa witnessed. Patent Claims Isaued from the United States Patent Office FOR THB WEEKENDING MABOH 9,185a [Reported officially for ihe Scientific American.] SAWINS MACHINE—T. J. Alexander, of Westerville, Ohio; I claim, first, The combination with the endless chain, E, and driving pin, f, to the reciprocating feed carriage, of the carriage slide, G, Bet in independent motion at intervals as described; lever, H, and pawl, I J, of the feeding ratchet, or their equivalents, for actuation of both the longitudinal and croae feeds, essentially as specified. Secondly, I also claim the gear of the cross feeding ratchet wheel, K, with the feeding roller, L, by f ric-tional contact and support or gear of said roller, through center points or end pins, with lever appliances, or their equivalent,at itaend or ends, to admit of the free run ot the roller independent of its frictional contact with the feeding ratchet wheel also admitting of the frictional bite of said wheel and roller being established, or broken, with facility, without interfering with the motion of the ratchet and gear therewith of the actuating pawl or pawls, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. ROTARY STEAM ENGINES—Alfred Arnold, of New York City : I da-im, firat, The beveled periphery of the wheel, A, whereby the steam expends ita force on the faces of the notches while being divided andpaaaed awayfrom the resisting surface of the wheel. Second, Thesteam eheat, D, with its several perforations as described. Third, The combination of the valve, F, and steam chest, D, with the wheel of a percussion engine whereby the power of the engine maybe decreased without decreasing the velocity and density of the steam applied, substantially as described and "for the purpose specified. METHOD OF BENDING SEVERAL, PIECES OF WOOD OP UNEQUAL LENGTHS AT ONCE—H. A. Barnard, of Mo-line, 111. : I claim combining the clamp, J, or ita equivalent, by which the timber is grasped and held with the strip of metal, I, and the bending form, II, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. FLOOR PLANE—C. E. Barlow, of Philadelphia, Pa, : I do not claim, broadly, the manner of connecting the handle with the stock. But I claim the construction of a self-adjusting floor plane, with its handle or handles hinged to the stock, substantially as described for the purposes set forth. HAND COEN PtANTBRfl—H. F. Batcheller, of Sterling, 111. : I do not claim the seed distributing roller, B, for that is an old device and in common UBe on many kind? of seed drills, nor do I claim the slide, D, for that is uleo in common use in hand planters. But I claim the combination of the pressure si We, D. and seed distributing roller, B, arranged as shown ana placed relatively with the seed box, A. so as to operate substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [This invention consists in the employment or use of a slide and seed distributing roller, arranged relatively with a seed box, whereby the slide is made to rotate tho seed distributing roller, and also to force the seed into the earth. An adjustable gage board in also employed, attached to the device, so tbat it may. easily bo removed when necessary for cleaning the implement.] MILLS v—m REDUCING SUBSTANCES—Thomas Blan-cliard, of Boston, Maaa. : I do not wish to be understood a3 claiming broadly the use of two series ofcireu-lar dieka on parallel rotating shafts, with the periphery of one series working in the spaces between the disks of the other series except when arranged so as to have a mode of operation such as I have invented and described. I cluim in the construction of mills for reducing substances the employment of two series of rotating shears constructed substantially as described combined with each other, and with o suit able hopper for the supply of the material to bo reduced, and having a mode of operation substantially such as deseribed. And I also claim in combination with the two series of rotating shears for reducing substances, substantially as described, the two series of eceentria clearers, substantially such as described. MANUFAOTUKB or ARTIFICIAL SKINS—J. IT. Brown. of Abbey Mills, Romssy Hants, Kngland. Patented in England Nov. 18, 1853 : I claim the manufacture of artificial skins described. MACHINE FOR MINING COAT,, C,—C. A. Chamber-lin, of Allegheny City. Pa. : I claim, first, The combination of chisel-edged cutters and oblique-edged cut-terd applied to the cutter wheel to operate substantially as set forth. Second, The construction and mode of fitting together the cutter-wheel and the head. N, in which its axle is supported in the manner subaoinKally as described, whereby the cutter wheel is enabled to cut its way beyond its axis, as explained. Third, The arrangement of the main frame, the carriage, and the cutter wheel, to operate substantially aa set forth. [We have noticed this invention in another portion, of thia journal.] BEDSTEAD FABTRNINGB—Wm. Clark, of Weymouth, Ohio : I claim the arrangement of the Dolt, D, with the head, D', and finger, I, and the washer, E, provided with the slot, T7, flange, E, in connection with the jointed rails which are provided with springs, J, and pins, K, for the purpose Bet forth. SUGAR ASD CIDKB MILLS—H. J. Cox, of Warren Co., Ohio : I claim the combination of the several parts of a grooved roller cider mill, and the several partB of a smooth roller sugar mill in manner and form described in the specification, forming a new combination of machinery for the purpose of grinding sugar cane and apples, the same being perfectly adapted to both without alteration. BILLIARD TABLE TOPS oa BEDS—Chas. Croley, of Cincinnati, Ohio : I claim constructing the bed of billiard tables with the grain of the wood at right angles with the surface of the bed and confining the bed to the frame, a, of the table with the crossbars, ccc, screws, f f f, and blocks of wood, d d d, arranged as represented for the purpose of allowing the bed, B B, to expand and contract, without becoming untrue, as before mentioned, and for other purposes specified in the foregoing specification. MEAT CUTTER—A. B. Davenport, of Petersham, Mass. : I am aware that vibrating knives have been used with moving trays; these I do not claim, mine it will be seen containing a different feature (its springing or yielding) in connection with its vibration; neither do I claim the use of cams to operate the knife. But I claim the combination in the manner and for the purposes set forth of the cam wheel, spring knife, i and reciprocating tray, when constructed and operating i. as set forth and described. i MAOHINEEY pon MAHUFAOTUBING PLAITED COBP— U Charles Feichert, of New York City : I claim, first, The 3 construction of the strand spindles, substantially as de- 5 scribed, whereby the operations of twisting together the threads to form the strands and the covering or plaiting of the*strands are performed simultaneously and by the same rotary motion, and a uniform twist thus given to the threads of the body and of the plaiting or covering. Second, The regulators, R R, applied substantially aa described between the strand spindles and the laying spindles for the purposes set forth. Third, The arrangement of the strand spindles, the layiug spindle, and tho rollers, r r, or other equivalent, for laying the strands, substantially as described for the purpose set forth. [.See a description in another portion of this paper.] MODE or TIGHTENING AND SECURING THE KEYS OF THE JOURNAL BOXKS OV CONNECTING RODS OB PITMEN —Levi Dederick, of Albany, N. Y. : I claim the application of springs to act upon the tightening keys of the ournal boxes of connecting rods and pitmen, substantially aa and f orthe purpose specified. [Springs are applied to the tightening keys of the journal boxes of connecting rods and pitmen, in suoh a manner that the said springs will drive up the keys to tighten up the boxes aafast aa required by the wear" of the boxes and journals, and hold the keys in their places to retain the proper degree of tightness of the boxes.] SEED PI-ANTEHS—YVm. C. Doss, of Texana, Texas : I claim the cylinder, F, provided with the cups, II, and fingers, G, in combination with the cylinder, J, armed with obliquely set paddles, K, arranged and operated in the manner and for the purpose specified. MACHINE FOE FITTING WAGON TIRES—E. L. Dorsey, of Johnson county, Ind. : I do not claim the wheel, B, orthe measuring of the tire by means of this wheel. But I claim the arrangement described of the wheels, E E, and D D, with the wheel, B, hand, F, and spring slide, M, substantially in the manner and for the purpose fully set forth. LUBRICATING THE AXLE BOXES OF CARRIAGE WHEELS -Wm. Diller, of Lancaster, Pa. : I claim the oblique or inclined grooves or oil chambers, B, formed within the axle box, A, substantiallyas and for the purpose set forth. [The box has a series of oblique or inclined grooves formed in its inner Bide extending entirely around the inner surface, and placed at such distances apart that the portion of the arm of the axle around which one groove will pasa over as the box rotates, will adjoin or nearly adjoin the portion of the arm around which ita adjoining grooves will pass over. These grooves are made of a requisite depth and breadth to form oil chambers for the perfect lubrication of the arm, without diminishing in any appreciable degrea the bearing of the box.] CORN HUSKKHS—Joseph and J. L. Fagan, of San An-tonia River, Texas : We claim the rotating wheel, C, provided with spurs or projections, a, and with cutters, f, actuated by the cams, F', or their equivalents, in combination with the stationary and movable concaves, TC F", the whole being arranged to operate substantially as and for the purpose Bet forth. [This invention consists in the employment of a rotating wheel providod with cutters and spurs or projections in connection with twoeoncaves—a stationaryand vibrating one—the stationary concave having slitting hooks, they being arranged BO as to make a very good husker.] REPEATING FIRE-ARMS—A. C. Faivre, of Meadville, Pa. : I claim, first. The screw valve or cnt-off, J, in combination with the lever, i, and cover, 4, constructed as described: Second, I claim the concave, 7, with the bull chamber, F, and the powder chamber, T, in combination with the lever, II. and ramrod, z, constructed aa do-scribed. Third, I claim the cylinder, 6, constructed as described with the charge cnamijer and ball tube in combination with the box, D, and the concave, 7. all constructed as described, or any other constructions, substantially the same and which will produce the name results. SIT-IOE FOR JOINTS OF RAILROAD RAILS—M. Fisher, of Trenton, N. J. : I claim the combination of the sole piece, a, forelocks, f, and bolt or bolts, b, f or splicing the ends of rails on railroads, constructed, arrangedand employed, substantially in the manner and for the purposes specified. PIN STICKING MACHINE—T. Fowler, of Watcrbury, Conn. : I claim the combination of the lateral feeding motion of the paper with the longitudinal feeding motion of the paper, when the two motions are effected, substantially as deseribod. Second, I also claim the method of taking the pins from the conductor in combination with tho method of Inserting them, one at a time,, into the crimped paper, when thisia effected substantially as described. MACHINES FOE HULLING Rion— A. M. George, of Nashua, N. H.: I do not claim separately or in themselves considered, the conical rotating head, C, and shell, D, for they have been previously used for similar or analagous purposes. But I claim the arrangement, as shown and described, of the conical head, C, shell, D, fan, M, and annular blast or wind chamber, K, for the purposes specified [This hulling and scouring device is constructed BO that the hulls are not only removed from their kernels or grains, but the kernels on tho grains arer perfectly scoured and winnowed.] FIFTH WHEEL FOR VEHICLES—II. T. Goodale, of Clinton, Mass.: I claim the arrangement of the reach, II, with the groove, f, to receive a screw, e, in combination with the conical shell or cap, 15, and projection, o, connected hy bolt, D, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [The object of this invention ia to connect, by a very simple means, the front axle with the front spring of the vehicle and also with the reach, in such a way as to allow the former to turn freely, both vertically and horizontally, so thattsaid axle may be turned or movod to conform to the inequalities of the surface of the ground without straining or at all affecting the reach, and the axle is also allowed to be turned freely by the team, M usual, for the perfect guidance of the vehicle.] GRINDING MILLS—R. D. Granger, of Philadelphia, Pa.: Without laying any exclusive claim to the employment of two or more grinding cones, and without con-fininemyseltto any particular numberof such cones— I claim, first, So constructing grinding mills having any convenient number of annular, concentric, grinding cones, that each cone shall have ita own hopper, communicating with the general hopper, and its own set of feed openings, substantially nsset forth and for the purpose specified. Second, The combination of the bridge-tree, G, as secured to the shell, B', the bun-shaft, F, with its pinion, I, and the shaft, H, with its wheel, J, when each is arranged in relation to the other, substantially aa set forth and for the purpose specified. FIELD FENCE—John H. JoneB and Newtbn W. Smith, of Lebanon, Ohio : We claim the means of uniting the panels by projecting one halt of the bars from each end ot the panel, and one half of their length into the adjoining panel, between the batteries, and connecting them together with pins, P, or otherwise, substantially the same, whieli mode of uniting the panels dispenses with-the lapping and double battens aa before stated. MACHINES FOR CUTTIKO AND CBXTSIIING CORN STALKS —Henry and Amou Hersh, of Laucaeter county, Pa, : We claim, first. The peculiar abape of the knives located at top of cylinder, and attached to the atms of the ahaft for the purpoee of cutting off the ends of corn stalks by a circular sweep and an angular downward cut at the same operation, as described. Second, We claim the combination of the knives as curved to correspond with the cylinder at top, and ita spiral set teeth at the sides for the purpose of cutting and crushing the corn stalk ni oneijoperatlon moat effue-tually and in the simplest manner aa described. STUMP EXTRACTORS—Washington Hall, of Brewer, Me. : I claim the combined arrangement of the simple levers, h h, having their fulcrum in the windlass axle, With the ratchets, g g, actuating and retaining pawls, i i, and j j, axle, e, and framework, abed, the whole so constructed and operating as to form a cheap and effective machine for the purpose set forth. PLOWS—David Hoke, of Byhalia, Miss. : I claim the arrangement of the coulter, D, in combination with the stock, c, and beam, A, substantially in the manner andforthe purpose specified. I also claim the mode of constructing the stoekwith a loog horizontal flanch, a, by which it is not only secured to the beam, but by which the coulter is held back against the foot of tho stock, substantially as described. LOCK—Abraham Iloagland, of Jersey City, N. J. : I do not claim as original any one of the parts of this lock, but I claim the combination of the several parts to form a catch lock, with a separate key hole on eaeh side, having the bolfc A, operated by the segments B, and the spring F, constructed and arranged substantially aa described. EXCAVATING POST HOLES—Wm. R- Johnston, of Rock Island, III.: I do not confine myself to a driving wheel of the form described, bat contemplate using a wheel for that purpose, having a central shaft, and cogi on the outside, I hare also contemplated the using of two augurs at once, one at tach end of the general framework, and both moved by the same driving wheel. But I claim the arrangement of the pinion, b, the shaft, e, the gate, G, the wheel, g, the cogged bar, h, carrying the half nut, f, the whole arranged and operating as deseribed, for the purpose described. ATTAOIIIN THE SPRINGS OK "VflmoLES—F. L. Kidder and A. E. Aeby. of Brooklyn, (E. IX,) N. Y.: We claim so arranging and conne ctin g the springs o f f our-wh ee led vehicleB, with the body and axles, aa that the draft is transmitted from the bolster longitudinally through the springs to their points of connection with the body of the vehicle at each side, and thence in like manner through the hind springs to the hind axle, forming a direct line of draft on each side of the body from the front to the rear axle, thus dispensing with the necessity of the ordinary perch and braees to support the axle, using for this purpose the O G, or such other form of spring O3 will accomplish tba object in tho manner substantially as deseribed. SAFETY APPARATUS FOR STEAM BOILERS—William K. Hall, of West Hoboken, N. J. Patented in England, Nov. 12,1865: I am aware that Cadwallader Evans, in April, 1839, invented an an arrangement by which the molting of a plug allowed the steam to escape, and caused a weight to fall and open a cock by which wator from areaervoir might extinguish the fire. That John P.Bakewell, in December, 1839, patented anapparatus by which the steam only was blown from the boiler on the melting of a plug; and that in May, 1865, A, M. Glover proposed an apparatus by which an over pressure of steam, when the boiltr had a full supply of water, would force some of the water into the furnace, and wh en the water became low, in such a ease, would permit the eseape of steam, thus occasioning, in various ways, the premature rscape of steam, which my appa-ratuais designed to prevent, and which, in many instances, seems to have been thefinal lin k in the chain of circumstances leading to the apprehended disaster. But I elaim the combination of a valve, fusible metal, and intervening elastic substance, and a pipo leading from the lower part of the boiler, as deseribed, by which the water may firat be discharged from a boiler when dangerously overheated, aud mployed, if daired, to extinguish the fire. MACHINERY FOE POLISHING GLASS, O.—Alexander Lindsay, of Malone, N. Y.: I do not claim producing a simple rotary motion of grinders or polishers, or the surfaces to be ground or polished, by the friction produced by the rotation of the opposed surface or surfaces. But I claim the arrangement of fche grinders or polishers substantially as specified, whereby they are caused to derive a compound rotary motion such as is specified, by the friction produced npon them by the rotary motionof the surface or surfaces to be ground or polished, or what is equivalent, the reverse arrangement by which the surfaca or surfaces to be ground or polished are caused to derive similar compound rotary motion by the friction produced, by a rotary motion of the grinding or polhhing surface. [Tiiis is described on another page, ] SAFETY YALVB-William H. Low, of Albany, N. Y. : I am aware that auxiliary safety valves to be woighted to a given pressure and locked up beyond the interference of the engineer or other party, nave been uaed, andl do not claim them broadly; but! claim first, The combination of the "double beat valve," B, with the seat, A, an'd weight, F, when arranged in relation to the passages, a, a, and to each other as described and for the purpose* sot forth. Seeond, The combination of the double boat valve, B, with the handle, G, casing, e, pin, g, uud Blotted hole, g', as and for the purposes set forth. COTTON PRESSES—Josephus Loving, of Moscow, Tenu. : I do not claim broadly so operating the follower of the press, that a progressive or variable power is obtained, for various plans have been devised for effecting thi purpose. But I claim the peculiar means crriployed for thus operating the follower, to wit: the crossed levers, F, G, in combination with the rollers, s, and t, et f, attached respectively to the follower bar, E, and straps, c, e, substantially aa shown and described. [This invention relates to an improvement in that class of presses in which a progressive power Is obtained, and consists in the peculirr means employed for actuating the follower, whereby a progressive power is not only obtained by a very simple monn(—,but the small amount of friction attending the operating or moqing the followor, gradually diminishes as the lever power is increased, the several parts so operating as to render thiB class of press much more effectual than usual.] MACHINE FOR PACKING FLOTTR—Judson Mattieon, of Oswego, N. Y.: I claim aa a protection to the sack or barrel to be packed, a stationary or movable cylinder containing a screw or some other packing apparatus, arranged to work within said cylinder and force the flour or other substance to be packed, out of said cylinder, and pack it into the sack or barrel that surrounds it, substantially as described. I also claim a traversing or yielding platform, so constructed and arranged as to hold the sack or barrel up around the cylinder containing the packer, substantially as described, and yield as the sack or barrel is filled with packed flour or other substance being packed by the machine: and in combination with the traversing platform, I claim one or a series of weights, arranged so as to counterbalance the weight of the material being packed on the platform, so as to pack the flour or other substance uniformly, from the bottom to the top of the Back or barrel. MODE OF OPERATING BRAKES OP RAILROAD CARB— Melville McGee, of Jackson, Mich.: I claim the compound adjustable link and pullies specified, in combination with the device ujion the locomotive for operating the brakes, the whole being constructed, arranged and operated substantially in tho manner and f or thg purposes above described. CURTAIN FIXTURE—Joseph F. Hall, of Baugor, Me. : I claim the combination of the spring, E, and the pulley, i, substantially as set forth. MANUFACTURE OP GAS—David C, Knab, of Paris, France. Patented in France, March 30,1849: I claim the manufacture of gas and of coke, and other secondary products, in furnaces constructed and operated substantially in the manaer set forth. SKIST SUPPORTERS—N. —J. Nelson, of Concord, N. H.: I do not elfum a supporter waistband with shoulder straps. I do not claim the use of hooks oi- buttons upsn a supporter waistband for the purpose of attaching skirts thereto. But I do claim the projecting out or flaring of the lower edgo of the frame of the waistband, or of pieces attached to it, as E, E, E, (making the waistband shaped like the natural waist.) substantially in the manner described above, in order that the skirts may be supported, not by hooking, buttoning, or tieing them to the supporter waistband, but by simply putting the skirt waiatbandB about the supporter waistband, in the same manner as they are put about the waiat when no flupporir is used. SNOW PLOWS—Joseph H. Pawlingt of Philadelphia, Pa. : I disclaim the invention of the inclined plane, A, A, the lateral wing a, I), D, the movable wing, g, the cutters, C, C, C, simply as such, the scrapers, S, S, S, S. simply as such, and every part and arrangement not after specifically claimed by me. But I claim, nrat, The arrangement set forth in the Raid specification or any other substantially the same, by whloh fche cutters, C, C, C, are made to revolve upon their axes, aud by which the movement of the truck in following the direction and curves of the rails is communicated to the cutters, and brings their edges and causes them to aet always in the direction in whichthe plow is moving. Second, The arrangement of the scrapers as before specified, or nny other substantially thn same, by which they can be elevated and depressed at pleasure, so as to be kept clear of the rails when the train ia backing, and thus prevented from matching in the joints of the rails, and tun be pressed against the rails when the train Is moving forward at the will of the operator. ATTACHING METALLIC LETTER BOXES TO LAMP POSTS —Albert Potta, of Philadelphia, Fa. : I claim the combination of the letter boxes and lamp posts, by making the letterboxes (metallic) with a perforation or socket, through the center oi- side thereof, aa shown at E, and F1, so as to elide over and embrace the shaft of the ordinary cast iron lamp post, aa above described andforthe purposes mentioned. SEED PLANTERS—Joseph Redhead, of Woodville, Miss.: I elaim first, The seed distributor, G, hung upon hinged arms, and agitnted us described, ior the purpose of sifting the seeds through the opening or openings in its bottom, as set forth. Second, I claim a supply seed box, rocking or oscillating on its supporters, aa an auxiliary in furnishing the distributor with seeds, without BO overcharging said distributor as to cause the seed to choke orclog therein, substantially as described. APPARATUS FOR CONTAINING AND IGNITING CIGAR LIGHTING CINDRRB—Henrich Reimann, oi Hartford, Conn. : I claim the combination of the conveyor, c, and ring, b, with the toothed rin?, a, constructed and operated substantially in the manner and for the purpose act forth. ROTAJCY PUMPS—William Pierce, of New Orleans, La.: I am aware that separate blades designed to be thrown out by centrifugal fores, and having shoulders to arrest their movement, have been used in connection with an eccentric inner surface. Thia I do not claim, as such pumps require rapid rotation to render them operative. I also disclaim the connecting of blades and arresting their motion by shoulders of the opposite blade when separately considered. But I claim the united blades whose amplitude of motion is limited by shoulders ot the oppoaite blades, as described, in combination with the projection, m, in filling the space between rim, d, and center piece, a, as specified. SPRING SKATS OF CIIAIRS, SOFAS, c—Charles Robinson, of Cambridgeport, Mass. : I claim the hinged supporting blocks, B B, and their projecting arms, C C, connected by a band or bands, D, and operating substantially tts and for the purpose epecified. ENAMELING LKATITRE—John Rose, of Newark, N. J. : I am aware that carbonate of ammonia and sea-salt have been mixed with india rubber, but in a manner and with results widely different from my invention; euch use of these substances I do not claim. Neither do I claim the invention of Canada balsam varnish. But I claim the process of enameling leather, the whole operation being substantially as described, and for tho purposes specified and set forth. CULTIVATORS—D. B., Seymour, and Lunian Rogers, of Pittsburgh, Pa. : We claim the combination of teeth, braces, standards, spring clamp and gage-irons with the frame of a cultivator, the whole being constructed and arranged in the manner andforthe purpose* set forth. CLOTHING FOP. CARDING CYUNDERS—C. G. Sargent and F. A. Calvert, of Lowell, Mass. : We are aware 6hat clothing for carding cylinders and burring cylinders has been made by punching up teeth from short strips of sheet metal, which were secured longitudinally to the cylinder, and we therefore lay claim to no such invention. But we elaim the described method of making clothing for burring and carding cylinders, the teeth being formed upon flattened wire and bent at right angles to the plane of the strip of metal which sustains them, for the purpose set forth. MODE OP PRODUCING VBRTMAL A:ND HORIZONTAL RECIPROCATING MOTION—Matthias Steigcrs, of St. Louia, Mo. : I claim so arranging and combining a serieH of eccentrics, or their equivalents, as to communicate to machinery a reciprocating motion in a vertical and horizontal direction at one and tho same time, substantially as set forth. GRINDING MILLS—Gelston Sanford, of Poughkeepeie, N. Y. : The particular improvement which constitutes my invention, and which I claim is, giving the edges of the plates, D aud E, having a longitudinal and lateral motion with reference to each other, the notch form described, or its equivalent, by -which the breaking of the coarser particles, and their introduction between the plates is insured, substantially as set forth. WINDOW-FAGTENER— E. S. Scripture, of New Haven, Conn. : I am aware that bolts with spiral grooves formed in them have been used before for various pnrposos ; 1 therefore do not claim HUCII. But I claim the vibrating tracer, B b, or, In other words, small section of a screw nut, allowed to be vibratory in ita operation, in combination with the elastic pillow block, C, the regulating block, D, the bolt, K, and the catch stud, G, with their flanges and inclined filanesj all being secuied in a two-part tube, and all be-Qg arranged substantially in the manner andforthe purposes set forth. MATHEMATICAL DIVIDERS—Anton Schaefer, of New York City : I claim the application and use of a parallelogram to dividers, in the manner and for the purpose specified. HABVESTEBB—Henry C. Smith, of Cleveland, Ohio : I do not claim any of the devices named and described as new, in themselves considered, or detached from each other. But what distinguishes my improvement from all others relntes to the manner of elevating and depressing the cutter-bar, by means Bet forth, and also in giving any desired pitch to the fingers, or keeping them in a horizontal position, by means of changing the relative position of the neap, in reference to the frame, D, and drag bars, E E, and at the same time changing the point of draft, as the nature of the case may require. I claim the manner described of raising and lowering tha cutter-bar, by the combined action of the levers, II | IJ, the flexible rod or cord, P lv. levers, R R' and wheel, S : this I claim when constructed and relatively arranged and operating as described, and alao when used in connection with the drag bars, EE, articulating upon the axle, C, as set forth, for the purpose specified. HOT WATER RVOTATOUS—Thomas T. Tasker, of Philadelphia, Pa. : I am aware that sections of tubes, with and without flange and shoulder joints, have been secured together by through bolts, and I lay no claim to this mode of securing parts of a, tube together. liut I clnim the mode of securing together the several divisions or systems of radiator tubes, aa aet forth, the same consisting, in the employment of the four terminal section?, E, to each division, the whole being held together by the through bolts, II, as set forth, thereby affording great facility in setting up the radiators, and in taking them apart. IRON PAVEMENTS—Abijah 11 Tewkebury, of East Boston, Mass.: I do not claim an iron hexagonal paving block formed with legs or lugs, extending downward from the several corners of its cap, to be united or fixed to other blocks of like character, by means of iron slips, or hands, such being described in the specification of No. li—,77i; of United States patent,*. Nor do I claim a pavement block made of metal, and formed of a aeries of arches alternating in position, and connected to ridge or string-pieces, and having interstices between the arches, the same being shown in No. 15,475.1 of United States patents. Nor do I claim a pavement block made of a hollow eubical box, having an arched or ribbed cup, and formed with round holes through its vertical sides, as my invention, or improved block, aa a whole, differs essentially from such. In the first place, it had but two prongi extended down from the ends of its cap. and such cap w arched in two directions viz., lengthwise, as well as widthwise. My block is of an oblong shape, and each prong ia made wedge-shaped, in order that when the block may bo driven downwards, the wedge-shaped prong will enter the soil, and consolidate the earth which may cuter be-twecii the two prongs. Furthermore, the concave cap or cup-shaped arch also condenses and consolidates the earth, so aa to steady and support the pavement block in lateral, as well as" in longitudinal directions. I claim the improved cast iron pavement block aa made with an arched cap and two wudgc-sliaped prongSj arranged substantially as described. CONSTRUCTING FR AM mo OH1 BRIDGES, a—Wm. Mc-Kibbin, of San Francisco, Cal.: I claim the combination of the slotted lugs, a, a, on the ends of the bars, the slotted plates,e and tl, and the wedges or keys, c, e, substantially as described, for the purpose set forth, [This invention consists in a novel and very simple method of clamping and securing together tho ends of metal bars, and of uniting plates with the said bara, \—y which great strength ia obtained. The invention is applicable in almost all cases where it is required to connect the ends of iron bars, whether or not it is required to combine plate3 with the said bara.] LlFH-lJRKS SEVER KAFT OF BUOYATST JlATTRHSSRQ— \V. Urquharfc, of New York City : I am aware that it is old to form a, raft by strapping together a series of mattresses, which are arranged in the same horizontal plane, the straps being attrffchud to the side edges and end of each, mutt res*5, and the connection finally formed in a noli a manner that unclosed joints between the different mattresses exist for the water to dash up through and flood the raft; therefore I do not claim a raft thus formed. But I claim providing tho mattresses of a ship with stmpy and buckles on their upper and under surfaces, and with loops round their edges in the peeular manner (Shown, whereby, in case of emergency, a scries of mattresses cui be buckled* together, and. a life-preserving raft funned, by placing several layers or tiers of the mattreaaes thus buckled together op top of one another, in a manner to form angular break joints, and said layers or tiers thus arranged readily and conveniently strapped together, in such a manner that it will be impossible for the ties to separate or change their position longitudinally or laterally, as set forth. VAI/VK FOR STEAM ENGINES—Isaac Van Doren, of Soraerville, N. J. : I claim a valve constructed substantially as described, having tho steam-cheet in ita center, but such steam-chest, so constructed as described, that the steam shall not press against the valve, and also having the exhaust chamber between ita outer and inner shells, the whole arranged substantially as and for the purposes set forth. BUNCO HOOK—Edwin 15. "White, of Nashua. N. II. : I do not claim the shell or case, nor the hook, C, provided with the shank, I), which fits within the ahell, A, for these paifts have been previously used. But I claim securing the hook, C, at the desired hight by means of the lever, E, attached to the sliell in case, A, and operated or adjusted by the crew, F, or its equivalent, so that the shank, D, of the hook will be pressed agaiust, both at its upper and lower end, and thereby firmly secured within the shell or case, aa do-ecribed. [This invention consists in the novel means employad for holding the hook in its case or shell, whereby the hook may be readily adiusted, and firmly secured at the desired bight above its bed-piece or plate, so as to effectually resist the pressure of the stuff which ia placed against it, as usual, while being planed, or otherwise operated upon.] CARPET-STRETCHER—Joseph "Warner, of New Britain, (Jonn. : I claim the lever, A, of any proper form or shape, provided at one end with teeth, d, and pivoted to a plate, B, having spura, e, attached, substantially ae and for the purpose set forth. [This is a lever, having teeth pivoted to a plate provided with spura, the parts being arranged so that the implement may be readily secured to the floor, and connected to the edge of the carpet in such a way that, as the latter is tacked to the floor, it may be stretched with the greatest facility. This stretcher ia, in every way, convenient for operation.J TB.ES cimsa PLOW—"William Wiso, of Washington, 1). C. : I claim the combination of the auxiliary share with the plow, substantially as described. I also claim the combination of the guide-bar with the plow, substantially as described. COTTON GINS—Francis L. "Wilkinson, of Adam's Run, S. C : I am aware that the plate, E, baa been previously used for the purpose stated, and stripping brushes have also been ued ; 1 therefore do not claim separately the plate, K. I am also aware that grooved rollers havebeen used in cotton gins, uud therefore I do not claim them as my invention. Nor do I claim, separatelv, and irrespective of their relative position with the rollers, D B, the brushes, v TV, on the bars, II I. But I claim the arrangement shown and described of the spirally grooved rollers, B D, oneor both, stripping brushes, v w, and plate, K, for the purposes set forth. [One or both of the rollers of this cotton gin are grooved spirally, like a screw, for the purpose of readily detaching the seed from the cotton ; and tlicre is also used in connection with the grooved rollers, stripping brushes, and a guard plate, whereby the usual slow pro-ess of ginning cotton by moans of rollers ia much expedited, ia aa effectually performed.] RAILROAD CAR BuAKES—Stephen M. Whipple, of ) North Adam?, Mass.: I claim the combination of levers, pulleys and chains, operated and arranged substantially ly us described, by which a brakeuian on the rear end 3 of the last car of the train is enabled to brake the train. MACHINE3 FOK PICKING FffiKOUS MATERIALS—Oliver Woodworth, Jr., and J. D. Page, of East Hartford, Conn. : We claim the combination of two or more conical cylinders, having teeth placed spirally around them at proper intervals, and within a suitable case, having teeth arranged in such manner as to allow the teeth in the cylinders to pass between them, for the purpose described, and in the manner substantially as set forth. W wish it understood that we do not confine ourselves to the precise dimensions given, but vary according to the kind of stock used and quantity required. STEAM BOILERS—Joseph Wood and H. N. Winane, of Jersey City, N. J. : We claim the interposition of the diaphragm reflector, A, between the flues and the exhaust for the purpose of protecting the exhaust from the draft, and for reflecting the heat back to the head, the whole constructed and arranged substantially aa described. CONSTRUCTION OF MILITARY DEUSIS—Charles M. Zimmermann, of Philadelphia, Pa. : I do not claim tightening the ends of military drums by a rope passing through holes made in the hoops, and over the same, aa this is in common use. But I claim arranging and adapting a series of pulleys, b b b b, to the sides of drum hoops*, for the purpose set forth. OORN-SIIKLLERH—Daniel G. Greene, (assignor to himself and George II. Greene,) of North Bridgewater, 11m : I am aware that a double tapering cylinder for shelling corn was patented by James Ross, April 12, 1S33, and therefore I make no claim to said device. But I claim the arrangement of the single tapering roll, b, concave shells, d d', slots, f f, spring, g h, and spout, i, as shown and described, whereby the ear of corn is ahvavs kept in horizontal position, and the cob is prevented from being forced diagonally under the roll, and is thus saved from beintr crushed of broken, together with other advantages, all as set forth. METHOD OF GENERATING STKAM IN COMBINATION "WITH ATMOSI'IIBKIO AIR AS A MOTVYB Powrat—James Black, (assignor to Scott, Todd&Co.,) of Philadelphia, Pa. : I do not wish to be understood ns making claim, broadly, to generating a vapor or gas from atmospheric air ho! ing moisture in suspense, a-s tins will not produce the result contemplated by me. But I claim generating a vapor or gas f ormechanical purposes by injecting into a suitable heated vessel or generator a mixture of atmospheric air and water, in about the proportions sptcified, and substantially in the manner and for the purpose specified. DRESS OV STONES FOR IIULLTNO MILLB—David Collins, (assignor to himself and W. L. HanfordO of Jersey City, N. J. : I do not claim dressing hulling stone's with radial or curved furrows. But I claim the runner atone, dressed with the radial polygonal furrows, 3 and 4, as specified, when combined with the bed-atone having radial furrows, 1 1, and straight furrows, 2 2, or their equivalents, substantially ae and for the purposes specified. ATTACHING TOOLS TO HAKDLES—John Henn, of New Britain, Conn., (assignor to himself, Anton pane, and Leopold Lankan, of Hartford, Conn. : I claim the arrangement and construction of the plate, w. with projection, D, acting against a spring in the back of a handle, in such a manner that when opened it will relieve said spring to allow a knife or tool to be attached to the upper end of said handle, and when closed, force the spring against the tool, ao as to hold the same perfectly steady in the handle, substantially as described. PEVIOK FOR PRSTAGRAI'HIO KNORAVING MAOJIIKEB— John Hope, (auslynor to himself and Thomas Hope,) of Providence, K. I : I claim combining with the main tracer of a pentagraphic engraving machine, a grooved tablet, A, or Us equivalent, and an arm, 1), and secondary tracer or guide, E, to run or work in the grooves of the tablet, and to govern the'direction of the movements of the main tracer in producing the grounded linen of the engraved figures, as specified. I also claim combining with the tracer, B, the reat, G, io as to operate therewith, as specified. MATCH MAOIIINF—Samuel Miller, of Hammond, N. Y., and William Gates, Jr., (assignors to William Gates, Jr.,) of Frankfort, N. i. : We do not claim the endleea chain clamps, (J, nor the cutting tool, O, for they have been previously used as stated. But we claim operating or moving the chain of clamps C, intcrmittingly, retaining it during the proper dwells, and opening the clampa during aaid dwells, by means of the cams, 11 J J, constructed and arranged substantially as described. Wo further claim the guide, S, fitted in the gate, M, and used in combination with the grooved bar, K, for the purpose of guiding the match sticks, or causing them to be properly presented to the clamps. We also claim the bar, K3 with or without the guide, S, when said bar. R, is used m connection with the cutting tool. O, for the purpose of retaining the bolt in proper position aa the cutting tool ascends. [A notice of this will be foundon another page. J WAsniKa MACHINE—Henry Lawrence, (assignor to himself and J. M. Connel,) of Newark, Ohio : I do not claim oscillating boxes for washing machines, broadly considered. But I claim the combination as described of the stationary clothes-holder, f, with the oscillating box, B, and flexible rubbing system connected therewith, and made to pass over the said frame, f, substantially as set forth. RAISING DOUGH—James Perry and Elisha Fitzgerald, (assignors to James Perry, Daniel Fitzgerald, and Horatio Bogart.) of New York City: We claim the process of preparing dough or paste for making bread, cakes, or other farinaceous articles of food, by mixing the materials with gas, under pressure, in a closed vessel, substantially as described, as a means of leavening or raising the same, as set forth. We also claim discharging the dough, as aforesaid, from the vessel, by the gaseous pressure, as it is required, substantially as and for the purpose specified, MACIITNK FOR PRICKING AND CUTTING HBELB OP BOOTS AND SHOBS—Edward S. Snell, (assignor to himself and Francis B. Washburn,) of North Bridgewater, Mass.: I claim the arrangement of devices described, for pricking the holes in Doot and shoe heels, the same consisting of the block, g, furnished with a series of awls, h, the plate, k, and a pattern or bed piece, n, upon which the beel is placed, the whole operated substantially aa et:t forth. In conuection with the above. I also claim the cutting apparatus, consisting of a knife, so arranged upon a sliding carriage as to keep up to the pattern, and. furnished with a wheel that travels on the pattern in front of the knift\ to adapt the knife to short curves in heels, whereby a heel is formed and pricked accurately, an set forth. SEWING MACHINES—Clias. Raymond, (assignor to Willford IT. Nettleton.) of Bristol, Conn. : I wish it to be understood that I do not claim fixed and moving looping instruments, over both of which the thread is drawn to spread the loop for the needle to pass through, as tills has before been used; but I nm not aware of any previous device, in which the loop has been taken and directed to a double inclined spreading plate, on the sides of which the loop is spread, by the drawing up of the needle thread, therebyinsuring the proper entrance of the needle into said loop in its next descent, and using but a very short loop close up to the bed supporting the material being sewed, at the same time the instrument taking the loop from the needle performs no duty in spreading the loop, but simply directs it to the stationary double inclined spreader, as specified : therefore— I claim first, The combination of the thread guide, 3', clamping surface, 3, and the eye, 2, on the upper end of the needle bar, when said thread guide is fitted to move with the needle bar, and regulated by the atop, h, or its equivalent, so as to measure off the amount of thread for each stitch, substantially as specified. Second, I claim a stationary double inclined spreading plate, n, over the sides of which the loop ia drawn and spread when combined with a looping point, to direct the loop of needle thread to eaid spreading plat*, as it draws up, as specified. INK STANDS—Lucien Kl. Hicks, of Boston, Mass., (assignor to David C. Field, of Brooklyn, N. Y.): I claim the employment of the bottom, b, of a flexible inkstand, constructed substantially in the manner set forth, for tlie purpose of serving as a valve in its use with the tube, d, operating in the manner find for the purposes set forth in the foregoing specification. KE-IS8UK6. GAS TUBE JOINT—Chap. Monson, of New Haven, Conn. Pa tented Jan. 19,1858: I do not claim the invention of the well known universal joint composed of parts not tubular, or having no passage through it by which a fluid can pass from one part to the other connected by such joint. Nor do I claim the well known "ball and socket joint," so formed and applied to or made to connect two tubes, that there may be a passage through it lpadingfrom one to the other or such tubes. Hut I claim a conduit universal joint, made substantially aa described, viz: with the armed branches, g, h, and tlieir connection croBs jointed together and provided with one or more passages, ao arranged in them as to open a communication from one leading tube, a, to the other, b, with which such conduit joint may be connected. And I also claim the combination of the relief ring, c, or ita equivalent, with the armed branches, and the connection crotw, the same being arranged therewith substantially in the manner and for the purpose as specified. ADDITIONAL IMPROVEMENTS. STEAM PLOWS—Peirce Klingle, of Washington County, D. C. Patented Feb. 23, 18,58: I claim the placing of clearer, S S, in connection withtheoffbearing wheel, B of my steam plow, in such a manner that the one will fill back the furrow that the other has opened, they being arranged, constructed, and operated substantially in the manner and far the purpose described and set forth. CUTTING FLOUE Mri-us—Jonathan Burdge, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Patented June in, 185G : I claim the doubly conical concavity in aad cutting ridges on the face of the cutter head, arranged and acting as described, in combination with the concavity and ridges of the counter plate for the purpose specified. I also claim extending the ridges. B B, inward bc-neaththe feeding aperture of the counter plate, in combination with the inner conical concavity of the cutter head, and with the counter plate, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. DESIGNS. CABHIAGB HUB SAND BAWDB—Jainea Ives, of Mount Cam el, Conn.
This article was originally published with the title "Spots in the Eyes" in Scientific American 13, 28, 217-219 (March 1858)