The returns of births, marriages, and deaths in Scotland for 1857, just published, show that one birth in every 29, one death in every 49, and one marriage in every 143 of its inhabitants has taken place. The birth rate, which was thus, 338 for every 10,000 of the popula- tion in Scotland, was, in the same year, 343 - for every 10,000 in England. So far as a three years' average can determine such a point, it would appear that the mean mortality in Scotland has been in the proportion of 200 deaths to every 10,000 persons living, whereas in England the proportion of deaths during the same year has been 216 to every 10,000 living—producing a deficiency on the part of England of 91,259 lives in the three years. In Scotland, the inhabitants of towns were cut off during the year at the rate of 244 in every 10,000 persons, or one death in every 41; whereas in the rural districts the proportion was only 157 deaths in 10,000 persons, or one death in 63. The proportion of marriages is considerably below the ten years' average in England, the former showing only 69 marriages in every 10,000 persons, and the latter 84. This fact, and the circumstance that the returns show the number of illegitimate births to be greater, would seem to indicate that some causes are in operation which are not favorable to the morals of the population in Scotland.