In a tiny, windowless conference room at the R&D headquarters of Intel, the world's dominant microprocessor and semiconductor manufacturer, Mark Bohr, the company's director of process architecture and integration, is coolly explaining how Moore's law, as it is commonly understood, is dead—and has been for some time. This might seem surprising, given that Bohr is literally in the Moore's law business: his job is to figure out how to make Intel's current 14-nanometer-wide transistors twice as small within the decade. But behind his round-rimmed glasses, Bohr does not even blink: “You have to understand that the era of traditional transistor scaling, where you take the same basic structure and materials and make it smaller—that ended about 10 years ago.”