There is now on exhibition in this city a remarkable painting, The Blacksmith (Le Forgeron), by the late Hubert E. Delorme, who died in Paris in 1894. Mr. Delorme was born at Givors, in the Rhone district, France, in 1842. From early life he had the artistic impulse. He went to Paris while still a young man, and through his innate industry and skill soon made himself a place in the world of art. He exhibited at both salons. His works are remarkably realistic. The Blacksmith, the painting which we reproduce in half tone, is the most notable of his works. It embodies two features, involving very delicate handling and a fine appreciation of the different qualities of light. The sturdy smith stands gazing at the iron in the fire, which is nearing the proper heat. The ruddy glow of the forced fire is seen and the radiated heat is felt by the spectator ail it is realized that both the heat and the light are received in f ul l force on the face, neck, and arms of the blacksmith, who patiently waits, tongs in hand, for the iron to heat. The sparks and the color of the fire show that the fuel used is charcoal. Smoke circles around the forge, and dust, cobwebs, cinders, scraps, and tools are in their natural places. An open door and a dusty window on the left let in bursts of sunlight, while another window—not seen— graph taken with an ordinary plate, and without a yellow screen, shows the fire dark, and the firelight is shown as a shadow rather than illumination; but with orthochromatic plates and the yellow light sifting screen everything was perfectly rendered excepting a slightly exaggerated illumination on the sunlit por tions and the surfaces illuminated by diffused daylight alone. This slight defect was corrected by flowing on the back of the negative a thin coat of orange lacquer and, after it became dry, removing with alcohol portions opposite the places lit by daylight, thus screen i ng the main part of the negative while the sunlit portions were allowed an increased exposure. Much difficulty was experienced in securing an angle of illumination which would prevent the reflection of light from the ridges of the brnsh marks. This was especially true in the case of arti ficial illumination, in which also uniformity of illumination proved a problem. To avoid the first difficulty, the light was allowed to strike the canvas at a low angle, so as to cause the stray light to be reflected away from the field of t h e lens, so as not to affect the plate. Uniformity of illumination was secured by burning the magnesium torch on either side of the camera as near the canvas as possible witbout bringing it into the field of view. The best results, however, were secured by daylight. full legal tender silver at $3,439,800,00, stock of limited tender silver at $631,200,00. making a total silver stock in the world of $4,070,500,000; the uncovered notes are placed at $2,469,500,000. An Important Patent Dcision. By a decision filed Dec. 2, in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, third circuit. a previous decision of the New Jersey Circuit Court was reversed, and patents 291,784 and 291,785 of Augustus Schultz, of Brooklyn, N. Y., were sustained. These patents are for a method of tannage of light leathers, styled the chrome tannage, which has become of great importance in the leather trade within the past five years. In glazed kid for ladies shoes, which formerly constituted a considerable item in our imports, the home production of chrome tannage almost entirely supersedes goods made in the old way, the imports now being very small, and our kid finishers having already ob-tained considerable export trade. In the production of colored calf and morocco leather this process has also met with success, the chrome tanned leathers being of greater toughness and affording better resistance to moisture, and thus having increased wearing capacity. Nearly one thousand printed pages of testimony were taken on both sides of the case, and it was argued Bleaching Cotton Piece Goods. Cotton piece goods are bleached in different ways, according to the use to which they are to be put. The operation is generally performed in such a way that the singed and washed piece is first passed through a lime bath of 5 1b. of lime to 100 lb. of goods. The material is next washed, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, % to 1 B., then boiled—4 lb. soda, 2 1b. resin, and lib. caustic soda being used per 100 lb. of goods; washed again. and treated in a chloride of lime hath of 1 to 2lb. chloride of lime per 100 lb. of material; acidulated with hydrochloric aeid, 1 B.; again washed, and then dried. Attempts have often been made to com bine the processes of chloring and acidu-lating, but without satisfactory results, the pieces so bleached having a yellow tinge after washing. In many bleaching establishments the liming process and the boiling are united, the cotton pieces being boiled in a lime and soda solution. In large cloth printing houses the cotton pieces are singed first. then washed, limed, acidulated, washed again, and afterward boiled out twice with soda, caustic soda, and resin. The quantity of ingredients to be used for the boiling operation depends on whether the cloth is to be treated in the open or closed vat, under pressure, and, if the latter, the quantity of caustic soda is decreased. After boiling from 6 to 12 hours, the pieces are washed in the washing machine, then entered into the chloride of lime bath, next taken out and entered direct into the acid bath, in which they remain for a short time, after which they are washed again and dried. All these operations are performed by the continuous process—that is to say, the pieces are stitched together at the ends and are passed in rope form through the d ifferent baths in succession. To remove any remaining chlorine. the washed pieces are passed through a cold solution of bisulphite of soda, and again washed. In the continuous process, eare must be taken to pass the washed cloth through a vessel containing diluted spirits of hartshorn, in order to remove every trace of free acid. To bleach 100 lb. cotton cloth, a lye consisting of 10 lb. lime and 10 lb. calcined soda is prepared, allowed to settle, and the clear fluid is poured into the boiling-out vat. The cloth is then entered into the suitably diluted lye, and boiled from 6 to 8 h ours, after which the liquor is allowed to run off, and the cloth is cooled with cold water. Next, the goods are thoroughl y acidulated with hydrochloric aeid. % to 1 B., and washed in the washing machine. For 100 lb. cloth, the chlorine liquid is prepared from 1) to 2 lb. chloride of lime, rubbed in water, in a perforated drum, into a fine milk. then strained, and the cleared liquid is used for bleaching. The chloride of lime bath is started with cold , water, the prepared cloth being immersed in it from 6 to 8 hours, after which it is taken out and acidulated in a cold bath with hydrochloric acid of l B.; th/-.j washed and dried. The addition of a little petroleum naphtha to the boiling-out bath has been recommended, in order to increase the cleansing effect, which process has proved quite efficient ; in this case, however, the boiling water must not contain lime, but only caustic soda, resin, and soda. If this mode of cleansing is adopted, the cotton cloth is first treated ill the lime bath, then acidulated and washed, and afterward entered into the boiling-out bath. It is necessary in bleaching cotton cloth to distinguish between the so-called market bleach and the printing bleach. The first does not require the addition of resin soap, although when it is used the white obtained is always clearer and brighter, but the second bleach does. It is well known that print cloth bleached without resin soap or not sufficiently boiled out prints badly and that a clear white on it is im possible, but the co-operation of the dissolving resin is indispensable for the print bleach, becau se, besides the natural impurities of the cotton that remain in the cloth, there are those resulting from the weaving, etc., which are removed by the resin soap. Experiments for bleaching cotton cloth with peroxide of hydrogen have been quite successful, but it has been found that this method is too expensive. It has, therefore, not been generally employed, except for very tine cotton cloths, the price of which can include a suitable charge for bleaching. The electrolytical bleaching methods have lately been regarded more favorably ; the Hermite mode, the oldest, has had to stand many attacks, and it is still doubted whether it can be used on a large scale. The more recent methods by electrolysis are all based upon decomposing a solution by electrolysis and bleaching the cloth with it, but it is not yet known what would be the result in actual practice, as such a plant requires the outlay of much capital. The latest bleach method—Siemens—i. e., by the use of ozone. is still too much a matter of experiment only to be able to express an opinion here, the views regarding its practicability differing most widely. It is stated, however, that by the use of the Siemens apparatus, it is possible to generate 20 grammes ozone per horse power per hour. This is a very small quantity, but when one considers what an immense effect can be produced by it, one is almost forced to conclude that, in the near future, the bleaching of cotton cloth with ozone will be attempted in the cotton goods industry.—Farber Zeitung. The Maximum Depth of the Ocean. A sounding has recently been taken in the Pacific Ocean, near the coast of Japan, which showed a depth of 29.400 flet, or approximately 5) miles. This is a little more than the height of the loftiest mountain, Mount Everest. which is situated in the Himalaya range, to the north of India. How much deeper the Pacific is than this it is impossible to tell; the wire having broken, presumably through its inability to sustain its own weight. In a previous attempt to reach the floor of the ocean at this spot, the wire broke at a depth of 25,800 feet. It has been !uggested, as one theory of the formation of mountain ranges, that they represent the crumpling up, or buckling, of the earths crust under the severe contraction strains that were set up as the surface of the globe solidified. If this be true, the deep ocean valleys or gorges, such as this off the coast of Japan. must be the result of the same action. Taken in connection with the loftiest mountain, this sounding gives a difference in distance from the earths center of about twelve miles, or Th of the earths radius. The Thermophoiie. This is an electrical apparatus in which sounds are produced by the changes in the circuit due to variations of temperature. Its use is to measure temperature, particularly the temperature in a distant or inaccessible place ; at the bottom of a pond. for instance. For obtaining deep sea temperatures it is useful, and it may also prove of great service in the ventilation of buildings, for by this instrument the temperature of any room in a building can be registered on a dial placed in the hall. The scientific uses of the thermophone are obvious, and it will be of great aid to physicists in determining the fluctuations in the temperature of the soil and the difference in temperature between the water at the surface and that at the bottom of ponds or lakes.
This article was originally published with the title "The Blacksmith and His Forge" in Scientific American 73, 24, 379-380 (December 1895)